Walt Whitman (1819 - 1892) is one of American's most famous poets. He was considered a humanist; believing that the value of human beings, individually and together, held primacy over established practices, faiths and doctrines. Whitman embraced intuition and emotion over rationality, and became a great contributor to the genre of writing known as Transcendentalism, a philosophical belief that the divine spirit resides within all of us, and in the inherent goodness of man and nature.
Whitman's preferred style was free verse, a form of poetry free of consistent meter, rhyme or pattern. Leaves of Grass was his most significant collection, published in five subsequent editions (the last was in 1892), featuring the most significant work by a modern American poet, Song of Myself. Visit our Song of Myself - Study Guide for analysis and useful links.
During the Civil War, Whitman treated injured soldiers in Washington, DC army hospitals. His works shifted from "self" to the impact of the War. Described as impressionist sketches of Civil War scenes using words rather than colors, this profound shift in his writing style is best exemplified in two of his finest poems. Both were published after Lincoln's death in 1865: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd (1865), and O Captain! My Captain!, an extended metaphor with conventional meter and rhyme, that's inspired many generations.
After the War, Whitman worked at the Departments of Interior and Justice, where he served as a clerk until his stroke in 1873. He lived almost twenty years after his epic Leaves of Grass. He produced two major poems before his death: Passage to India (1871) and Prayer of Columbus (1874).