A collection of short stories, books, essays, letters, poems, and speeches about the American Civil War (1861 - 1865).
The Veteran by Stephen Crane
Stephen Crane takes up the question of courage again, this time in a short story that is the "unknown sequel" to The Red Badge of Courage
. The author re-introduces Henry Fleming later in life, adds some more depth to the character, and makes a final commentary on the question of courage.
O Captain! My Captain! by Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman's plaintive poem lamenting the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.
The Story of a Conscience by Ambrose Bierce
In this Civil War story a confederate spy, Dramer Brune, is captured behind enemy lines with a forged pass. Anyone abusing the privilege of the pass is to be "summarily shot." But there's a twist that tweaks the captor's conscience when he realizes that the spy before him had saved his own life years earlier. Will the favor be returned?
A Horseman in the Sky by Ambrose Bierce
In this Civil War story, Carter Druse, a young soldier from a wealthy Virginia family elects to fight for the Union. We find him posted on sentry duty, guarding the valley where five regiments of Union soldiers are hunkered down and hiding. Carter's orders are to prevent a rebel scout from discovering their whereabouts. How far would you go to fulfill your mission?
The Battle Hymn of the Republic
The Battle Hymn of the Republic by Julia Ward Howe
What became the most popular song for the Union during the Civil War, Howe wrote the acclaimed lyrics, "Mine eyes have seen the glory" after an inspiring visit with President Lincoln in 1862.
Bless God, he went as soldiers by Emily Dickinson
Though her work was most intense and prolific during the Civil War, she rarely wrote explicitly about it. There's no ambiguity in this poem's references.
A Man With Two Lives by Ambrose Bierce
Did David Duck come make it back alive or not?
The Affair at Coulter's Notch by Ambrose Bierce
This is a story that is rife with deeper symbolism as a white officer and his men, working their artillery, are transformed into 'black' men by their work. But do not focus on the literary techniques to distraction or you will miss the real art of the story, which first emerges with a soldier's hesitation.
A Man With Two Lives
The Battle of Lookout Mountain by William Dean Howells
Fought on November 24, 1864, this battle was important because it pushed the Confederate flank, giving the Union forces a gateway to the deep South.
The Man Without a Country by Edward Everett Hale
After an outburst at a trial, Union Army Lieutenant Philip Nolan is sentenced to a life of exile; to live out his days as a passenger on U.S. Navy warships where he is to learn no news of his country and others are forbidden to mention the "United States." This pro-Union story was an effective morale booster for the Union cause.
The Story of a Year by Henry James
A young Henry James, who was conscripted to fight but was excused due to a back injury, what empathetic to the plights of those that were drafted into the bloody war. He was sympathetic to their many hardships, including ones of the heart. In this story, the young solider John Ford urges his fiance to form other relationships while he goes off to fight in the war.
Louisa May Alcott, Hospital Sketches, 1871
The Brothers by Louisa May Alcott
Louisa May Alcott of Little Women
fame served as a nurse during the War. In this short story she takes up questions of dignity, honor and loyalty and also sheds light on women's participation in the war.
When Lilacs Last in the Door-yard Bloom'd by Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman wrote this poem in 1865, juxtaposing Lincoln's death with Spring's bursting forth of life and renewal.
Letter to Sarah Ballou by Sullivan Ballou
A lawyer and politician turned Civil War soldier, Major Sullivan Ballou was torn between love for his wife and family and his feelings of devotion and duty to his country. He penned his now famous letter on July 14, 1861. He was mortally wounded a week later at the First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas as the Confederates called it). He passed away on July 29th, just fifteen days after authoring the letter.
War is Kind by Stephen Crane
"Swift blazing flag of the regiment, eagle with crest of red and gold, these men were born to drill and die."
The Coup de Grace by Ambrose Bierce
Yep, Bierce again. This time, a trio of characters are involved; the Halcrow brothers and Captain Madwell. Yep, "madwell," it seems like a loaded name to me too. In reply to an insult from one of the Halcrow brothers, Madwell replies, "Sir, I invite you to accompany the movement. A mounted officer would be a conspicuous mark, and I have long held the opinion that it would be better if you were dead."
The Burial of the Guns
The Burial of the Guns by Thomas Nelson Page
Page's landmark story deals with the emotional reactions of the Confederate soldiers upon hearing the news of Lee's surrender at the Appomattox Court House.
Christmas Eve in War Times by Edward Payson Roe
The story of Union Private Anson Marlow at the beginning of a battle as he lay dying. "He was conscious of little beyond a dull wonder."
Chickamauga by Ambrose Bierce
This child's spirit, in bodies of its ancestors, had for thousands of years been trained to memorable feats of discovery and conquest-- victories in battles whose critical moments were centuries, whose victors' camps were cities of hewn stone.
A Nameless Grave by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"A soldier of the Union mustered out," is the inscription on an unknown grave in Newport News, Virginia.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane
Published in 1895, a full thirty years after the American Civil War had ended, The Red Badge of Courage
follows the trials and tribulations of Henry Fleming, a recruit in the American Civil War struggling with ideas of bravery and courage. Although Stephen Crane was born after the war and never participated in battle himself, he produced one of the most influential war novels of all time and veterans praised his ability to capture the true nature of the battles he described.
Uncle Tom's Cabin or Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe
An anti-slavery novel published in 1852, Uncle Tom's Cabin had a profound impact on the American landscape and is widely credited with fueling the abolitionist movement, and contributing materially to the the tensions leading up to the American Civil War.
A Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave by Frederick Douglass
Considered one of the most important and influential writings of the Abolitionist Movement, detailing events of Douglass' life and the immorality of slavery itself.
Florence Nightingale's cookbook
Little Women by Louisa May Alcott
The coming-of-age story of the March sisters Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy as they grow up during the Civil War.
Thirty Years a Slave: From Bondage to Freedom by Louis Hughes
Considered one of the best examples of what's termed 'the slave narrative,' Hughes' book provided details that corroborated the mounting arguments against slavery.
Cooking by Troops, for Camp and Hospital by Florence Nightingale
The founder of modern nursing famous for treating combat soldiers in Europe, was commissioned by the Virginia Army to write directions how to feed hundreds of soldiers in camps and care for the sick in hospitals during the American Civil War.
The Gettysburg Address
Speeches and Historical Documents
The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln
It was on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863 that American President Abraham Lincoln took the stage and delivered one of the most famous speeches in American History, The Gettysburg Address. In a speech lasting just over two minutes, President Lincoln gave a stirring address that covered the founding principals of the country, acknowledged the great sacrifice of life, and then importantly, cast the conflict into a moral dimension that redefined the struggle as a battle to bring equality to all the country's citizens.
Sojourner Truth, The Libyan Sybil by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Stowe describes her legendary encounter with the African-American activist, published in 1864.
Second Inaugural Address of Abraham Lincoln by Abraham Lincoln
gave his Second Inaugural on March 4th, 1865. The end of the war was approaching, but the president did not strike a triumphal tone, choosing instead to question why Providence had visited the terrible war on the American people and using biblical allusion to ponder some of the painful and troubling questions the war had wrought. The Second Inaugural is a masterpiece of solemn oratory. "With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right . . ." Lincoln was assassinated within weeks of this speech; and the country mourned -- "O Captain! My Captain!"
Frederic Edwin Church, After Attack on Fort Sumter, 1860
Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln
Issued on September 22, 1862, this document declared that all persons held as slaves within any State will be forever free as of January 1, 1863.
Reconstruction Amendments to the U.S. Constitution by U.S. Congress, Senate, and State Legislatures
A summary of Amendments XIII - XV, passed between 1865 - 1870, referred to as the "Reconstruction Amendments."