by Anonymous

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XVII - Banquet (continued) - The Scop's Song of Finn and Hnaef

{Each of Beowulf's companions receives a costly gift.}

          And the atheling of earlmen to each of the heroes
          Who the ways of the waters went with Beowulf,
          A costly gift-token gave on the mead-bench,
          Offered an heirloom, and ordered that that man

{The warrior killed by Grendel is to be paid for in gold.}

        5 With gold should be paid for, whom Grendel had erstwhile
          Wickedly slaughtered, as he more of them had done
          Had far-seeing God and the mood of the hero
          The fate not averted: the Father then governed
          All of the earth-dwellers, as He ever is doing;
       10 Hence insight for all men is everywhere fittest,
          Forethought of spirit! much he shall suffer
          Of lief and of loathsome who long in this present
          Useth the world in this woful existence.
          There was music and merriment mingling together

{Hrothgar's scop recalls events in the reign of his lord's father.}

       15 Touching Healfdene's leader; the joy-wood was fingered,
          Measures recited, when the singer of Hrothgar
          On mead-bench should mention the merry hall-joyance
          Of the kinsmen of Finn, when onset surprised them:

{Hnæf, the Danish general, is treacherously attacked while staying at
Finn's castle.}

          "The Half-Danish hero, Hnæf of the Scyldings,
       20 On the field of the Frisians was fated to perish.
          Sure Hildeburg needed not mention approving
          The faith of the Jutemen: though blameless entirely,

{Queen Hildeburg is not only wife of Finn, but a kinswoman of the murdered

          When shields were shivered she was shorn of her darlings,
          Of bairns and brothers: they bent to their fate
       25 With war-spear wounded; woe was that woman.
          Not causeless lamented the daughter of Hoce
          The decree of the Wielder when morning-light came and
          She was able 'neath heaven to behold the destruction
[38]      Of brothers and bairns, where the brightest of earth-joys

{Finn's force is almost exterminated.}

       30 She had hitherto had: all the henchmen of Finn
          War had offtaken, save a handful remaining,
          That he nowise was able to offer resistance[1]

{Hengest succeeds Hnæf as Danish general.}

          To the onset of Hengest in the parley of battle,
          Nor the wretched remnant to rescue in war from
       35 The earl of the atheling; but they offered conditions,

{Compact between the Frisians and the Danes.}

          Another great building to fully make ready,
          A hall and a high-seat, that half they might rule with
          The sons of the Jutemen, and that Folcwalda's son would
          Day after day the Danemen honor
       40 When gifts were giving, and grant of his ring-store
          To Hengest's earl-troop ever so freely,
          Of his gold-plated jewels, as he encouraged the Frisians

{Equality of gifts agreed on.}

          On the bench of the beer-hall. On both sides they swore then
          A fast-binding compact; Finn unto Hengest
       45 With no thought of revoking vowed then most solemnly
          The woe-begone remnant well to take charge of,
          His Witan advising; the agreement should no one
          By words or works weaken and shatter,
          By artifice ever injure its value,
       50 Though reaved of their ruler their ring-giver's slayer
          They followed as vassals, Fate so requiring:

{No one shall refer to old grudges.}

          Then if one of the Frisians the quarrel should speak of
          In tones that were taunting, terrible edges
          Should cut in requital. Accomplished the oath was,
       55 And treasure of gold from the hoard was uplifted.

{Danish warriors are burned on a funeral-pyre.}

          The best of the Scylding braves was then fully
          Prepared for the pile; at the pyre was seen clearly
          The blood-gory burnie, the boar with his gilding,
          The iron-hard swine, athelings many
       60 Fatally wounded; no few had been slaughtered.
          Hildeburg bade then, at the burning of Hnæf,


{Queen Hildeburg has her son burnt along with Hnæf.}

          The bairn of her bosom to bear to the fire,
          That his body be burned and borne to the pyre.
          The woe-stricken woman wept on his shoulder,[2]
       65 In measures lamented; upmounted the hero.[3]
          The greatest of dead-fires curled to the welkin,
          On the hill's-front crackled; heads were a-melting,
          Wound-doors bursting, while the blood was a-coursing
          From body-bite fierce. The fire devoured them,
       70 Greediest of spirits, whom war had offcarried
          From both of the peoples; their bravest were fallen.

    [1] For 1084, R. suggests 'wiht Hengeste wið gefeohtan.'--K. suggests
    'wið Hengeste wiht gefeohtan.' Neither emendation would make any
    essential change in the translation.

    [2] The separation of adjective and noun by a phrase (cf. v. 1118)
    being very unusual, some scholars have put 'earme on eaxle' with the
    foregoing lines, inserting a semicolon after 'eaxle.' In this case 'on
    eaxe' (_i.e._, on the ashes, cinders) is sometimes read, and this
    affords a parallel to 'on bæl.' Let us hope that a satisfactory
    rendering shall yet be reached without resorting to any tampering with
    the text, such as Lichtenheld proposed: 'earme ides on eaxle

    [3] For 'gúð-rinc,' 'gúð-réc,' _battle-smoke_, has been suggested.

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