The American Language

by H.L. Mencken

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(With a few exceptions, this bibliography is restricted to books and articles consulted by the author in preparing the present work. It embraces all the literature that he has found useful.)

Abeille, Luciano: El idioma national de los argentinos; Paris, 1900.

Alford, Henry: A Plea for the Queen's English; London, 1863.

Allen, E. A.: The Origin in Literature of Vulgarisms, Chautauquan, Nov., 1890.

Allen, Grant: Americanisms (in Chambers' Encyclopaedia, new ed.; Phila., 1906, vol. i).

American Medical Association: Style-book; Chicago, 1915.

Anon.: Art. Americanisms, Everyman Encyclopaedia, ed. by Andrew Boyle; London, n. d.

---- Art. Americanisms, New International Encyclopaedia, 2nd ed., ed. by F. M. Colby and Talcott Williams; New York, 1917.

---- Americanisms, London Academy, March 2, 1889.

---- Americanisms, Southern Literary Messenger, Oct., 1848.

---- British Struggles With Our Speech, Literary Digest, June 19, 1915.

---- Don't Shy at Journalist, Editor and Publisher, June 27, 1914.

---- Good Form in England; New York, 1888.

---- I Speak United States, London Saturday Review, Sept. 22, 1894.

---- The King's English, Paterson's Magazine, Jan., 1817.

---- Our Strange New Language, Literary Digest, Sept. 16, 1916.

---- Polyglot Kuntze: schnellste Erlernung jeder Sprache ohne Lehrer: Amerikanisch; Bonn am Rhein, n. d.

---- Progress of Refinement, New York Organ, May 29, 1847.

---- Quick Lunch Lingo, Literary Digest, March 18, 1916.

---- They Spake With Diverse Tongues, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1909.

---- To Teach the American Tongue in Britain, Literary Digest, Aug. 9, 1913.

---- Word-Coining and Slang, Living Age, July 13, 1907.

Archer, William: America and the English Language, Pall Mall Magazine, Oct., 1898.

---- The American Language; New York, 1899.

Arona, Juan de: Diccionario de peruanismos; Lima, 1882.

Arthur, William: An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names; New York, 1857.

Ayres, Leonard P.: The Spelling Vocabularies of Personal and Business Letters (Circular E126, Division of Education, Russell Sage Foundation); New York, n. d.

Babbitt, Eugene H.: College Words and Phrases, Dialect Notes, vol. ii, pt. i, 1900.

---- The English of the Lower Classes in New York City and Vicinity, Dialect Notes, vol. i, pt. ix, 1896.

---- The Geography of the Great Languages, World's Work, Feb., 1908.

Bache, Richard Meade: Vulgarisms and Other Errors of Speech, 2nd ed.; Philadelphia, 1869.

Baker, Franklin T.: The Vernacular (in Munro's Principles of Secondary Education; New York, 1915, ch. ix).

Bardsley, Charles W.: Curiosities of Puritan Nomenclature; London, 1880.

Barentz, A. E.: Woordenboek der Engelsche spreektaal ... and Americanisms ...; Amsterdam, 1894.

Baring-Gould, S.: Family Names and Their Story; London, 1910.

Barker, Henry: British Family Names; London, 1894.

Barr, Robert: Shall and Will, Bookman, Dec., 1895.

Barrère, Albert (and Chas. G. Leland): A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon and Cant, 2 vols.; New York, 1889.

Barringer, G. A.: Étude sur l'Anglais parlé aux États Unis (la Langue Américaine), Actes de la Société Philologique de Paris, March, 1874.

Barthelmess, Harriet: Determining the Achievement of Pupils in Letter Writing, Bull. xvi, Dept. of Educational Investigation and Measurement, Boston Public Schools (School Document No. 6), 1918.

Bartlett, John Russell: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Usually Regarded as Peculiar to the United States; New York, 1848; 2nd ed. enlarged, Boston, 1859; 3rd ed., 1860; 4th ed., 1877.

Baumann, H.: Londinismen (Slang und Cant); 2nd ed.; Berlin, 1902.

Bean, C. Homer: How English Grammar Has Been Taught in America, Education, vol. xiv, no. 8, April, 1914.

Beauchamp, Wm. M.: Aboriginal Places Names of New York; Albany, 1907.

---- Indian Names in New York; Fayetteville (N. Y.), 1893.

Beck, T. Romeyn: Notes on Mr. Pickering's Vocabulary.... Transactions of the Albany Institute, vol. i, 1830.

Beidelman, William: The Story of the Pennsylvania Germans ... and Their Dialect; Easton (Pa.), 1898.

Bendelari, George: Curiosities of American Speech, New York Sun, Nov., 1895.

Benet, W. C.: Americanisms: English as Spoken and Written in the United States; Abbeville (S. C.), 1880.

Benton, Joel: The Webster Spelling-Book ..., Magazine of American History, Oct., 1883.

Bergström, G. A.: On Blendings of Synonyms or Cognate Expressions in English; Lund (Sweden), 1906.

Bibaud, Maximilien: Le Mémorial des Vicissitudes et des Progrès de la Langue Française en Canada; Montreal, 1879.

Blackmar, F. W.: Spanish-American Words, Modern Language Notes, vol. vi.

Blattner, Karl: Metoula-Sprachführer: Englisch; Ausgabe für Amerika; Berlin-Schöneberg, 1912.

Blue, Rupert, ed.: Nomenclature of Diseases and Conditions, U. S. Public Health Service, Misc. Pub. No. 16; Washington, 1916.

Bonnell, J. W.: Etymological Derivation of the Names of the States, Journal of Education, vol. xlvii, p. 378.

Bosson, Olaf E.: Slang and Cant in Jerome K. Jerome's Works; Cambridge, 1911.

Bowen, Edwin W.: Questions at Issue in Our English Speech; New York, 1914.

Boyd, Stephen G.: Indian Local Names; York (Pa.), 1885.

Brackebusch, W.: Is English Destined to Become the Universal Language of the World?; Göttingen, 1868.

Bradley, Henry: The Making of English; London, 1904.

Bradley, W. A.: In Shakespeare's America, Harper's Magazine, Aug., 1915.

Brandenburg, George C.: Psychological Aspects of Language, Journal of Educational Psychology, June, 1918.

Bridges, Robert: A Tract on the Present State of English Pronunciation; Oxford, 1913.

Bristed, Charles A.: The English Language in America (in Cambridge Essays; London, 1855).

Buck, Gertrude: Make-Believe Grammar, School Review, vol. xxii, Jan., 1909.

Buehler, H. G.: A Modern English Grammar; New York, 1900.

Buies, Arthur: Anglicismes et Canadianismes; Quebec, 1888.

Burch, G. J.: The Pronunciation of English by Foreigners; Oxford, 1911.

Burke, William: The Anglo-Irish Dialect, Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 1896.

Burton, Richard: American English, (in Literary Likings: Boston, 1899).

Buttmann, Philipp Karl: Lexilogus; London, 1846.

Carpenter, George R.: The Principles of English Grammar For the Use of Schools; New York, 1898.

Carpenter, W. H.: Dutch Contributions to the Vocabulary of English in America, Modern Philology, July, 1908.

Carter, Alice P.: American English, Critic, vol. xiii.

Century Magazine: Style-sheet; New York, 1915.

Channing, William Ellery: Essay on American Language and Literature, North American Review, Sept. 1815.

Chapin, Florence A.: Spanish Words That Have Become Westernisms, Editor, July 25, 1917.

Charters, W. W. (and Edith Miller): A Course of Study in Grammar Based Upon the Grammatical Errors of School Children of Kansas City, Mo., University of Missouri Bulletin, vol. xvi, no. 2, Jan., 1915.

Chesterton, Cecil: British Struggles With Our Speech (summary of art. in New Witness), Literary Digest, June 19, 1915.

Chicago Daily News: Style-book ...; Chicago, 1908.

Chicago, University of: Manual of Style ... 3rd ed.; Chicago, 1911.

Chubb, Percival: The Menace of Pedantry in the Teaching of English, School Review, vol. xx, Jan., 1912.

Churchill, William: Beach-la-mar: the Jargon or Trade Speech of the Western Pacific; Washington, 1911.

Clapin, Sylva: A New Dictionary of Americanisms ...; New York, (1902).

Clemens, Samuel L. (Mark Twain): Concerning the American Language (in The Stolen White Elephant: New York, 1888).

Cobb, Lyman: A Critical Review of the Orthography of Dr. Webster's Series of Books ...; New York, 1831.

---- New Spelling Book ...; New York, 1842.

Collins, F. Howard: Authors' & Printers' Dictionary, 4th ed., rev. by Horace Hart; London, 1912.

Combs, J. H.: Old, Early and Elizabethan English in the Southern Mountains, Dialect Notes, vol. iv, pt. iv, 1916.

Compton, A. G.: Some Common Errors of Speech; New York, 1898.

Coxe, A. Cleveland: Americanisms in England, Forum, Oct., 1886.

Crane, W. W.: The American Language, Putnam's Monthly, vol. xvi, p. 519.

---- Our Naturalized Names, Lippincott's Magazine, vol. lxiii, p. 575, April, 1899.

Crosland, T. W. H.: The Abounding American; London, 1907.

Cushing, J. S. Company: Preparation of Manuscript, Proof Reading, and Office Style at J. S. Cushing Company's; Norwood (Mass.), n. d.

Dana, Richard H., jun: A Dictionary of Sea Terms; London, 1841.

Dawson, A. H.: A Dictionary of English Slang and Colloquialisms; New York, 1913.

Dennis, C. J. Doreen and the Sentimental Bloke; New York, 1916.

Dialect Notes, vol. i, 1889-98; vol. ii, 1899-1904; vol. iii, 1905-12; vol. iv, 1913-16; vol. v, 1917-.

Douglas-Lithgow, R. A.: Dictionary of American Indian Place and Proper Names in New England; Salem (Mass.), 1909.

Dubbs, Joseph H.: A Study of Surnames; Lancaster (Pa.), 1886.

Dunlap, Fayette: A Tragedy of Surnames, Dialect Notes, vol. iv, pt. i, 1913.

Dunlap, Maurice P.: What Americans Talk in the Philippines, American Review of Reviews, Aug., 1913.

Dunn, Oscar: Glossaire Franco-Canadien; Quebec, 1880.

Dunstan, A. C.: Englische Phonetik; Berlin, 1912.

Earle, John: The Philology of the English Tongue; London, 1866; 5th ed., 1892.

---- A Simple Grammar of English Now in Use; London, 1898.

Eggleston, Edward: Wild Flowers of English Speech in America, Century Magazine, April, 1894.

Egli, Johann J.: Nomina Geographica, 2nd ed.; Zurich, 1893.

---- Der Völkergeist in den geographischen Namen; Zurich, 1894.

Elliott, A. M.: Speech-Mixture in French Canada: English and French, American Journal of Philology, vol. x, 1889, p. 133.

Elliott, John (and Samuel Johnson, Jr.): A Selected Pronouncing and Accented Dictionary ...; Suffield (Conn.), 1800.

Ellis, Alexander J.: On Early English Pronunciation, 4 vols.; London, 1869-89.

---- On Glosik, a Neu Sistem ov Inglish Spelling; London, 1870.

Elwyn, A. L.: A Glossary of Supposed Americanisms ...; Phila., 1859.

Emerson, Oliver Farrar: The Future of American Speech, Dial, vol. xiv.

---- A History of the English Language; New York, 1894.

English, Thomas Dunn: Irish in America, New York Times, Nov. 5, 1898.

Fallows, Samuel; Handbook of Briticisms, Americanisms, Colloquial and Provincial Words and Phrases; Chicago, 1883.

Farmer, John S.: Americanisms Old and New ...; London, 1889.

---- (and W. E. Henley): A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English; London, 1905.

---- (and W. E. Henley): Slang and its Analogues, 7 vols.; London, 1890-1904.

Ferguson, Robert: Surnames as a Science; London, 1883.

Fernald, F. A.: Ingglish az She iz Spelt; New York, 1885.

Ferraz, Juan Fernándes: Nahuatlismos de Costa Rica; San José de Costa Rica, 1892.

Field, Eugene: London letter in Chicago News, March 10, 1890.

Flaten, Nils: Notes on American-Norwegian, with a Vocabulary, Dialect Notes, vol. ii, pt. ii, 1900.

Flom, George T.: English Elements in Norse Dialects of Utica, Wisconsin, Dialect Notes, vol. ii, pt. iv, 1902.

Flügel, Felix: Die englische Philologie in Nordamerika, Gersdorf's Repertorium, 1852.

---- Die englische Sprache in Nordamerika, Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, band iv, heft i; Braunschweig, 1848.

Fowler, H. W. (and F. G. Fowler): The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 4th ed.; Oxford, 1914.

---- The King's English, 2nd ed.; Oxford, 1908.

Fowler, Wm. C.: The English Language ..., 2nd ed.; New York, 1855.

Franklin, Benjamin: Scheme for a New Alphabet and a Reformed Mode of Spelling; Phila., 1768.

Franzmeyer, F.: Studien über den Konsonantismus und Vokalismus der neuenglischen Dialekte; Strassburg, 1906.

Freeman, Edward A.: Some Points in American Speech and Customs, Longman's Magazine, Nov., 1882.

Funk & Wagnalls Company: Style-card; New York, 1914.

Geikie, A. S.: Canadian English, Canadian Journal, vol. ii, 1857, p. 344.

Gentry, Thomas G.: Family Names from the Irish, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman and Scotch; Phila., 1892.

Gerek, William (and others): Is There Really Such a Thing as the American Language?, New York Sun, March 10, 1918.

Giles, Richard: Slang and Vulgar Phrases; New York, 1913.

Gould, Edwin S.: Good English ...; New York, 1867.

Grade, P.: Das neger Englisch, Anglia, vol. xiv.

Graham, G. F.: A Book About Words; London, 1869.

Grandgent, C. H.: English in America, Die Neueren Sprachen, vol. ii, pp. 443 and 520.

----Fashion and the Broad A, Nation, Jan. 7, 1915.

----From Franklin to Lowell: a Century of New England Prounciation, Publications of the Modern Language Association, vol. ii.

---- Notes on American Pronouns, Modern Language Notes, vol. vi, p. 82; ibid., p. 458.

de la Grasserie, Raoul: Étude scientifique sur l'argot et le parler populaire; Paris, 1907.

Green, B. W.: Word-book of Virginia Folk-speech; Richmond, 1899.

Greenough, James B. (and George L. Kittredge): Words and Their Ways in English Speech; New York, 1902.

Haldeman, S. S.: Pennsylvania Dutch ...; London, 1872.

Hale, Horatio: The Origin of Languages, Proc. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1886.

Hale, W. G. (and others): Report of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Nomenclature Appointed by the National Education Association, the Modern Language Association of America, and the American Philological Association; Chicago, 1918.

[Hall, B. H.]: A Collection of College Words and Customs; Cambridge (Mass.), 1851; 2nd ed., 1856.

Hall, Fitzedward: English, Rational and Irrational, Nineteenth Century, Sept., 1880.

---- Modern English; New York, 1873.

---- Recent Exemplifications of False Philology; New York, 1872.

Halliwell (-Phillips), J. O.: A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs and Ancient Customs ..., 2 vols.; London, 1847.

---- A Dictionary of Archaisms and Provincialisms, Containing Words Now Obsolete in England, All of Which are Familiar and in Common Use in America; 2nd ed., London, 1850.

Hancock, Elizabeth H.: Southern Speech, Neale's Monthly, Nov., 1913.

Hancock, T.: Newspaper English, Academy, Jan. 29, 1898.

Harrison, Henry: A Dictionary of the Surnames of the United Kingdom; London, 1912.

Harrison, James A.: Negro English, Proc. American Philological Association, 1885.

Hart, Horace: Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford; 23rd ed.; London, 1914.

Hartt, Irene Widdemar: Americanisms, Education, vol. xiii.

Hastings, Basil MacDonald: More Americanisms (interview), New York Tribune, Jan. 19, 1913.

Hayden, Mary (and Marcus Hartog): The Irish Dialect of English: Its Origins and Vocabulary; Fortnightly Review, April and May, 1909.

Hays, H. M.: On the German Dialect Spoken in the Valley of Virginia, Dialect Notes, vol. iii, pt. iv, 1908.

Head, Edmund Walker: Shall and Will, or Two Chapters on Future Auxiliary Verbs; London, 1856.

Healy, J. F.: The American Language; Pittsburgh, 1910.

Helfenstein, James: A Comparative Grammar of the Teutonic Languages ...; London, 1870.

Hempl, George: Language Rivalry and Speech-Differentiation in the Case of Race-Mixture, Tr. American Philological Assoc., vol. xxix, p. 31.

---- The Study of American English, Chautauquan, vol. xxii, p. 436.

Herrig, Ludwig: Die englische Sprache und Literatur in Nord-Amerika, Der neueren Sprachen, vol. xii, p. 24; vol. xiii, pp. 76 and 241; vol. xiv, p. 1.

Higginson, T. W.: American Flash Language in 1798, Science, May, 1885.

---- English and American Speech, Harper's Bazar, vol. xxx, p. 958.

Hill, Adams Sherman: Our English; New York, 1889.

Hodgins, Joseph L.: Our Common Speech, New York Sun, March 1, 1918.

Hoffman, C. F.: Philological Researches, Literary World, Aug. 21, 1847.

Holliday, Robert Cortes: Caun't Speak the Language (in Walking-Stick Papers; New York, 1918, p. 201).

Horn, W.: Historische neuenglische Grammatik; Strassburg, 1908.

---- Untersuchungen zur neuenglischen Lautgeschichte; Strassburg, 1905.

Hotten, John Camden: A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant and Vulgar Words ... London, 1859.

Howells, William Dean: The Editor's Study, Harper's Magazine, Jan., 1886.

Hurd, Seth T.: A Grammatical Corrector or Vocabulary of the Common Errors of Speech ...; Phila., 1847.

Inman, Thomas: On the Origin of Certain Christian and Other Names; Liverpool, 1866.

J. D. J.: American Conversation, English Journal, April, 1913.

James, Henry: The Question of Our Speech; Boston and New York, 1905.

Jespersen, Jens O. H.: The Growth and Structure of the English Language; Leipzig, 1905; 2nd ed., 1912.

---- A Modern Grammar on Historical Principles; 2 vols.; Heidelberg, 1909-14.

Johnson, Burges: The Everyday Profanity of Our Best People, Century Magazine, June, 1916.

Johnson, Samuel, Jr.: A School Dictionary ...; New Haven, (1798?).

Jones, Daniel: The Pronunciation of English; Cambridge, 1909.

Joyce, P. W.: English as We Speak It in Ireland, 2nd ed.; London, 1910.

Kaluza, Max: Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache, 2 vols.; Berlin, 1900-1.

Keijzer, M.: Woordenboek van Americanismen ...; Gorinchem (Holland), 1854.

Kellner, Leon: Historical Outlines of English Syntax; London, 1892.

Kelton, Dwight H.: Indian Names of Places Near the Great Lakes; Detroit, 1888.

Ker, Edmund T.: River and Lake Names in the United States; New York, 1911.

Kleuz, H.: Schelten-Wörterbuch; Strassburg, 1910.

Knortz, Karl: Amerikanische Redensarten und Volksgebräuche, Leipzig, 1907.

Knox, Alexander: Glossary of Geographical and Topographical Terms; London, 1904.

Koehler, F.: Worterbuch der Amerikanismen ...; Leipzig, 1866.

Koeppel, Emil: Spelling-Pronunciation: Bemerkungen über den Einfluss des Schriftbildes auf den Laut in Englischen, Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte der Germanischen Völkes, lxxxix; Strassburg, 1901.

Krapp, George Philip: Modern English; New York, 1910.

Krueger, G.: Was ist Slang, bezüglich Argot? (in Festschrift Adolf Taber; Braunschweig, 1905).

Kuhns, L. Oscar: The Origin of Pennsylvania Surnames, Lippincott's Magazine, vol. lix, p. 395, March, 1897.

Lacasse, R. P. Z.: Ces Jeunes-là, on ne les Comprend Plus (in Une Mine Produisant l'Or et l'Argent; Quebec, 1880, pp. 252-6).

Lang, Andrew: Americanisms, London Academy, March 2, 1895.

Lardner, Ring W.: You Know Me Al ... New York, 1916.

Latham, Edward: A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames; London, 1904.

Latham, Robert G.: The English Language; London, 1841.

Learned, Marion D.: The Pennsylvania German Dialect, Part I; Baltimore, 1889.

Letzner, Karl: Worterbuch der englischen Volksprache Australiens und der englischen Mischsprachen; Halle, 1891.

Lewis, Calvin L.: A Handbook of American Speech; Chicago, 1916.

Lienemann, Oskar: Eigentümlichkeiten des Engl. d. Vereinigten Staaten nebst wenig bekannten Amerikanismen; Zittau, 1886.

Lighthall, W. D.: Canadian English, Week (Toronto), Aug. 16, 1889.

Littman, Enno: 23 and Other Numerical Expressions, Open Court, vol. xxii, 1908.

Lloyd, R. J.: Northern English; Leipzig, 1908.

Lodge, Henry Cabot: The Origin of Certain Americanisms, Scribner's Magazine, June, 1907.

---- Shakespeare's Americanisms (in Certain Accepted Heroes; New York, 1897).

Long, Charles M.: Virginia County Names; New York, 1908.

Long, Percy W.: Semi-Secret Abbreviations, Dialect Notes, vol. iv, pt. iii, 1915.

Lounsbury, Thomas R.: Americanisms Real or Reputed, Harper's Magazine, Sept. 1913.

---- Differences in English and American Usage, Harper's Magazine, July 1913.

---- The English Language in America, International Review, vol. viii, p. 472.

---- English Spelling and Spelling Reform; New York, 1909.

---- A History of the English Language, revised ed.; New York, 1907.

---- Linguistic Causes of Americanisms, Harper's Magazine, June, 1913.

---- Scotticisms and Americanisms, Harper's Magazine, Feb., 1913.

---- The Standard of Pronunciation in English; New York and London, 1904.

---- The Standard of Usage in English; New York and London, n. d.

---- What Americanisms Are Not, Harper's Magazine, March, 1913.

Low, Sidney: Ought American to be Taught in Our Schools?, Westminster Gazette, July 18, 1913.

Low, W. H.: The English Language; Baltimore, 1917.

Lowell, James Russell: prefaces to The Biglow Papers, 1st and 2nd series; Cambridge, 1848-66.

Lower, M. A.: Patronymica Brittanica; London, 1860.

Luick, K.: Studien zur englischen Lautgeschichte; Vienna, 1903.

Mackay, Charles: The Ascertainment of English, Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1890.

McKenna, L. B.: Surnames, Their Origin and Nationality; Quincy (Ill.), 1913.

Mackintosh, Duncan: Essai Raissoné sur la Grammaire et la Prononciation Anglais ...; Boston, 1797.

McLean, John: Western Americanisms (in The Indians: Their Manners and Customs; Toronto, 1889, pp. 197-201).

Macmillan Co.: Notes for the Guidance of Authors; New York, 1918.

Maitland, James: The American Slang Dictionary ...; Chicago, 1891.

March, Francis A.: Spelling Reform; Washington, 1893.

Marsh, George P.: Lectures on the English Language; New York, 1859; 4th ed., enlarged, 1870.

---- The Origin and History of the English Language; New York, 1862; rev. ed., 1885.

Maspero, J.: Singularidades del español de Buenos Ayres, Memorias de la Sociedad de lingüistica de Paris, tome ii.

Matthews, Brander: Americanisms and Britticisms ...; New York, 1892.

---- Is the English Language Decadent? Yale Review, April, 1918.

---- Outskirts of the English Language, Munsey's Magazine, Nov., 1913.

---- Parts of Speech; New York, 1901.

---- The Standard of Spoken English, North American Review, June, 1916.

---- Why Not Speak Your Own Language?, Delineator, Nov., 1917.

Mätzner, Eduard A. F.: Englische Grammatik, 2 vols.; Leipzig, 1860-65, 3rd ed., 1880-85; tr. by C. J. Grece, 3 vols., London, 1874.

Mead, Theo. H.: Our Mother Tongue; New York, 1890.

Mearns, Hugh: Our Own, Our Native Speech, McClure's Magazine, Oct., 1916; reprinted, Literary Digest, Sept. 30, 1916.

Melville, A. H.: An Investigation of the Function and Use of Slang, Pedagogical Seminary, vol. xix, 1912.

Membreño, Alberto: Hondureñismos; Tegucigalpa, 1895.

Mencken, H. L.: The American: His Language, Smart Set, Aug., 1913.

---- The American Language Again, New York Evening Mail, Nov. 22, 1917.

---- American Pronouns, Baltimore Evening Sun, Oct. 25, 1910.

---- The Curse of Spelling, New York Evening Mail, April 11, 1918.

---- England's English, Baltimore Evening Sun, Sept. 22, 1910.

---- How They Say It "Over There," New York Evening Mail, Oct. 25, 1917.

---- More American, Baltimore Evening Sun, Oct. 20, 1910.

---- Moulding Our Speech, Chicago Tribune, Nov. 18, 1917.

---- The New Domesday Book, New York Evening Mail, April, 1918.

---- Nothing Dead About Language ..., New York Evening Mail, Sept. 28, 1917.

---- Notes on the American Language, Baltimore Evening Sun, Sept. 7, 1916.

---- Spoken American, Baltimore Evening Sun, Oct. 19, 1910.

---- The Two Englishes, Baltimore Evening Sun, Sept. 15, 1910.

Menner, Robert J.: Common Sense in Pronunciation, Atlantic Monthly, Aug., 1913.

---- The Pronunciation of English in America, Atlantic Monthly, March, 1915.

Molee, Elias: nu tutonish, an international union language; tacoma, 1906.[1]

---- Plea for an American Language ...; Chicago, 1888.

Molee, Elias: Pure Saxon English; or, Americans to the Front; Chicago, 1890.

---- Tutonish; Tacoma, (Wash.), n. d.

---- Tutonish, or, Anglo-German Union Tongue; Chicago, 1902.

Montgomery, M.: Types of Standard Spoken English; Strassburg, 1910.

Moon, G. Washington: The Dean's English, 7th ed.; New York, 1884.

Morris, Edward E.: Austral English ...; London, 1898.

Morris, Richard: Historical Outlines of English Accidence; London, 1872; 2nd ed. rev., 1895.

Murison, W.: Changes in the Language Since Shakespeare's Time, (in The Cambridge History of English Literature, vol. xiv.; New York, 1917).

Murray, James A. H.: A New English Dictionary ...; Oxford, 1888, etc.

Newcomen, George: Americanisms and Archaisms, Academy, vol. xlvii, p. 317.

Norton, Chas. Ledyard: Political Americanisms ...; New York and London, 1890.

Oliphant, Samuel Grant: The Clan of Fire and Forge, or, The Ancient and Honorable Smiths; Olivet (Mich.), 1910.

---- Surnames in Baltimore, Baltimore Sunday Sun, 62 weekly articles, Dec. 2, 1906-Jan. 26, 1908 inc.; index, Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23, 1908.

Oliphant, W. Kingston: The New English; London, 1886.

Onions, C. T.: Advanced English Syntax; London, 1894.

Palmer, A. Smythe: The Folk and Their Word-Lore; London, 1904.

Paul, C. K.: The American Language, Month, vol. xciv.

Paul, Hermann O. T.: Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, rev. ed., 3 vols.; Strassburg, 1901-1909.

---- Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte; Halle, 1886; 4th ed., 1909; tr. as Principles of the History of Language by H. A. Strong; London, 1888; rev. ed., 1891.

Payne, James E. (and others): Style Book: a Compilation of Rules Governing Executive, Congressional, and Departmental Printing, Including the Congressional Record; Washington, 1917.

Pearson, T. R.: The Origin of Surnames, Good Words, June, 1897.

Pettman, Charles: Africanderisms: a Glossary of South African Colloquial Words and Phrases; London, 1913.

Phipson, Evascutes A.: British vs. American English, Dialect Notes, vol. i, pt. i, 1889.

Pickering, John: A Vocabulary or Collection of Words and Phrases Which Have Been Supposed to be Peculiar to the United States of America ...; Boston, 1816.

Pound, Louise: British and American Pronunciation, School Review, June, 1915.

---- Domestication of the Suffix -fest, Dialect Notes, vol. iv, pt. v, 1916.

---- Vogue Affixes in Present-Day Word-Coinage, Dialect Notes, vol. v, pt. i, 1918.

---- Word-Coinage and Modern Trade Names, Dialect Notes, vol. iv, pt. i, 1913.

Poutsma, H.: A Grammar of Late Modern English, 2 vols.; Groningen, 1904-5.

Prince, J. Dyneley: The Jersey Dutch Dialect, Dialect Notes, vol. iii, pt. vi, 1910.

Proctor, Richard A.: Americanisms, Knowledge, vol. viii.

---- English and American-English, New York Tribune, Aug. 14, 1881.

----"English as She is Spoke" in America, Knowledge, vol. vi.

Ralph, Julian: The Language of the Tenement-Folk, Harper's Weekly, vol. xli, p. 30.

Rambeau, A.: Amerikanisches, Der neueren Sprachen, vol. ii, p. 53.

Ramos y Duarte, Félis: Diccionario de mejicanismos ..., 2nd ed.; Mexico, 1898.

Read, Richard P.: The American Language, New York Sun, March 7, 1918.

---- The American Tongue, New York Sun, Feb. 26, 1918.

Read, William A.: The Southern R, Louisiana State University Bull., Feb. 1910.

---- Variant Pronunciations in the New South, Dialect Notes, vol. iii, pt. vii, 1911.

Rippmann, W.: The Sounds of Spoken English; London, 1906.

Riverside Press: Handbook of Style in Use at the Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass.; Boston and New York, 1913.

Root, E.: American and British Enunciation, Lippincott's, Sept., 1911.

Rupp, Israel D.: A Collection of ... Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776, 2nd rev. ed.; Phila., 1876.

Russell, T. Baron: Current Americanisms; London, 1893.

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Sanchez, Jesus: Glosario de Voces Castellanas derivadas Nahüatl ó Mexicano; n. p., n. d.

Sanchez, Nellie van de Grift: Spanish and Indian Place Names of California; San Francisco, 1914.

Sanz, S. Monner: Notas al Castellano en America; Buenos Ayres, 1903.

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---- Studies in English; New York, 1867.

Schulz, Carl B.: The King's English at Home, New York Evening Mail, Oct. 29, 1917.

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---- Verbal Taboos, School Review, vol. xx, 1912, pp. 366-78.

Searle, William G.: Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum; Cambridge, 1897.

Sechrist, Frank K.: The Psychology of Unconventional Language, Pedagogical Seminary, vol. xx, Dec., 1913.

Seeman, B.: Die Volksnamen der amerikanischen Pflanzen; Hannover, 1851.

Shute, Samuel M.: A Manual of Anglo-Saxon; New York, 1867.

Skeat, W. W.: English Dialects From the Eighth Century to the Present Day; Cambridge, 1911.

---- An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language; Oxford, 1882; 4th ed., 1910.

---- A Primer of Classical and English Philology; Oxford, 1905.

Smalley, D. S.: American Phonetic Dictionary of the English Language; Cincinnati, 1855.

Smart, B. H.: A Practical Grammar of English Pronunciations; London, 1810.

Smith, Chas. Forster: Americanisms, Southern Methodist Quarterly, Jan., 1891.

---- On Southernisms, Trans. American Philological Association, 1883.

Soames, Laura: Introduction to English, French and German Phonetics; New York, 1899.

Sproull, Wm. O.: Hebrew and Rabbinical Words in Present Use, Hebraica, Oct., 1890.

Stearns, Edward J.: A Practical Guide to English Pronunciation for the Use of Schools; Boston, 1857.

Storm, J.: Englische Philologie; Leipzig, 1896.

Stratton, Clarence: Are You Uhmurican or American?, New York Times, July 22, 1917.

---- The New Emphasis of Oral English, English Journal, Sept., 1917.

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---- A History of English Sounds; London, 1876; Oxford, 1888.

---- The History of Language; London, 1900.

---- A New English Grammar, Logical and Historical, 2 vols.; Oxford, 1892-8; new ed., 1900-03.

---- The Practical Study of Languages; London, 1900.

---- A Primer of Spoken English; Oxford, 1900.

---- The Sounds of English; Oxford, 1908.

Swinton, William: Rambles Among Words; New York, n. d.

Tallichet, H.: A Contribution Towards a Vocabulary of Spanish and Mexican Words Used in Texas, Dialect Notes, vol. i, pt. iv.

Tamson, George J.: Word-Stress in English; Halle, 1898.

Tardivel, J. P.: L'Anglicisme: Voilà l'Ennemi; Quebec, 1880.

Taylor, Isaac: Words and Places, 3rd ed. rev.; London, 1873.

Thom, Wm. T.: Some Parallelisms Between Shakespeare's English and the Negro-English of the United States, Shakespeariana, vol. i, p. 129.

Thornton, Richard H.: An American Glossary ..., 2 vols.; Phila. and London, 1912.

Toller, T. N.: Outlines of the History of the English Language; Cambridge, 1900.

Tooker, William W.: Indian Names of Places in the Borough of Brooklyn; New York, 1901.

Toro y Gisbert, Miguel de: Americanismos; Paris, n. d.

Trench, Richard C.: English Past and Present; London, 1855; rev. ed., 1905.

---- On the Study of Words; London, 1851; rev. ed., 1904.

Trumbull, J. Hammond: The Composition of Indian Geographical Names, Collection of the Conn. Historical Society, vol. ii.

Tucker, Gilbert M.: American English: North American Review, April, 1883.

---- American English, a Paper Read Before the Albany Institute, July 6, 1882, With Revision and Additions; Albany, 1883.

---- Our Common Speech; New York, 1895.

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---- Essentials of English Speech, 2nd ed.; New York and London, (1917).

---- The Foreign Element in English, New Age, Oct., 1913.

Wagner, Leopold: Names and Their Meaning; London, 1892.

Walter, G. F.: Phillimore: Sporting Terms in Common Speech, Monthly Review, Nov., 1906.

Wardlaw, Patterson: Simpler English, Bulletin of the University of South Carolina, no. 38, pt. iii, July, 1914.

Ware, J. Redding: Passing English of the Victorian Era ...; London, n. d.

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Watts, Harvey M.: Prof. Lounsbury and His Rout of the Dons on Americanisms, Philadelphia Public Ledger, April 16, 1915.

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---- The American Spelling Book ... Being the First Part of a Grammatical Institute of the English Language ... Boston, 1783.

---- The American Spelling Book ... revised ed.; Sandbornton (N. H.), 1835.

---- A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language; Hartford, 1806.

---- A Dictionary of the English Language Compiled for the Use of Common Schools in the United States; Boston, 1807.

---- A Dictionary of the English Language ... for Common Schools ...; Hartford, 1817.

---- Dissertations on the English Language ...; Boston, 1789.

---- The Elementary Spelling Book ... Phila., 1829.

---- The Elementary Spelling Book ... revised ed.; New York, 1848.

---- A Grammatical Institute of the English Language ... in Three Parts; Part 1, Containing a New and Accurate Standard of Pronunciation ...; Hartford, 1783.

---- A Letter to the Hon. John Pickering on the Subject of His Vocabulary; Boston, 1817.

---- The New American Spelling Book ...; New Haven, 1833.

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Wetherill, Georgine N.: The American Language, Anglo-Continental, Jan., 1894.

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---- British Americanisms, Atlantic Monthly, May, 1880.

---- Every-Day English ...; Boston, 1880.

---- Some Alleged Americanisms, Atlantic Monthly, Dec., 1883.

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Whitman, Walt; Slang in America, North American Review, vol. cxli, p. 431.

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---- Language and the Study of Language; New York, 1867.

Wilcox, W. H.: The Difficulties Created by the Grammarians are to be Ignored, Atlantic Educational Journal, Nov., 1912.

Williams, R. O.: Our Dictionaries; New York, 1890.

---- Some Questions of Good English; New York, 1897.

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Wittmann, Elizabeth: Clipped Words, Dialect Notes, vol. iv, pt. ii, 1914.

Wright, Joseph: An English Dialect Dictionary, 6 vols.; London, 1896-1905.

---- The English Dialect Grammar; Oxford, 1905.

Wundt, W.: Die Sprache; Leipzig, 1900.

Wyld, H. C. K.: The Growth of English; London, 1907.

---- The Historical Study of the Mother Tongue; New York, 1906.

---- The Study of Living Popular Dialects and Its Place in the Modern Science of Language; London, 1904.

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