Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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After we were all on board, the brig Orleans pro- ceeded down James River. Passing into Chesapeake Bay, we arrived next day opposite the city of JSTor- folk. While lying at anchor, a lighter approached us from the town, bringing four more slaves. Frede- rick, a boy of eighteen, had been born a slave, as also had Henry, who was some years older. They had both been house servants in the city. Maria was a rather genteel looking colored girl, with a faultless form, but ignorant and extremely vain. The idea of going to New-Orleans was pleasing to her. She en- tertained an extravagantly high opinion of her own attractions. Assuming a haughty mien, she declared to her companions, that immediately on our arrival in ISTew-Orleans, she had no doubt, some wealthy sin- gle gentleman of good taste would purchase her at once !


But the most prominent of the four, was a man named Arthur. As the lighter approached, he strug- gled stoutly with his keepers. It was with main force that he was dragged aboard the brig. He pro- tested, in a loud voice, against the treatment he was receiving, and demanded to be released. His face was swollen, and covered with wounds and bruises, and, indeed, one side of it was a complete raw sore. He was forced, with all haste, down the hatchway into the hold. I caught an outline of his story as he was borne struggling along, of which he afterwards gave me a more full relation, and it was as follows : He had long resided in the city of Norfolk, and was a free man. He had a family living there, and was a mason by trade. Having been unusually detained, he was returning late one night to his house in the suburbs of the city, when he was attacked by a gang of persons in an unfrequented street. He fought until his strength failed him. Overpowered at last, he was gagged and bound with ropes, and beaten, until he became insensible. For several days they secreted him in the slave pen at Norfolk — a very common establishment, it appears, in the cities of the South. The night before, he had been taken out and put on board the lighter, which, pushing out from shore, had nwaited our arrival. For some time he continued his protestations, and was altogether irrec- oncilable. At length, however, he became silent. He sank into a gloomy and thoughtful mood, and ap- peared to be counseling with himself. There was in


the man's determined face, something that suggested the thought of desperation.

After leaving Norfolk the hand-cuffs were taken off, and during the day we were allowed to remain on deck. The captain selected Robert as his waiter, and I was appointed to superintend the cooking de- partment, and the distribution of food and water. I had three assistants, Jim, Cuffee and Jenny. Jenny's business was to prepare the coffee, which consisted of corn meal scorched in a kettle, boiled and sweetened with molasses. Jim and Cuffee baked the hoe-cake and boiled the bacon.

Standing by a table, formed of a wide board rest- ing on the heads of the barrels, I cut and handed to each a slice of meat and a " dodger" of the bread, and from Jenny's kettle also clipped out for each a cup of the coffee. The use of plates was dispensed with, and their sable fingers took the place of knives and forks. Jim and Cuffee were very demure and attentive to business, somewhat inflated with their situation as second cooks, and without doubt feeling that there was a great responsibility resting on them. I was called steward — a name given me by the cap- tain.

The slaves were fed twice a day, at ten and five o'clock — always receiving the same kind and quantity of fare, and in the same manner as above described. At night we were driven into the hold, and securely fastened down.

Scarcely were we out of sight of land before we


were overtaken by a violent storm. The brig rolled and plunged until we feared she would go down. Some were sea-sick, others on their knees praying, while some were fast holding to each other, paralyzed with fear. The sea-sickness rendered the place of our confinement loathsome and disgusting. It would have been a happy thing for most of us — it would have saved the agony of many hundred lashes, and miserable deaths at last — had the compassionate sea snatched us that day from the clutches of remorseless men. The thought of Randall and little Emmy sink- ing down among the monsters of the deep, is a more pleasant contemplation than to think of them as they are now, perhaps, dragging out lives of unrequited toil.

When in sight of the Bahama Banks, at a place called Old Point Compass, or the Hole in the Wall, we were becalmed three days. There was scarcely a breath of air. The waters of the gulf presented a singularly white appearance, like lime water.

In the order of events, I come now to the relation of an occurrence, which I never call to mind but with sensations of regret. I thank God, who has since permitted me to escape from the thralklom of slavery, that through his merciful interposition I was prevent- ed from imbruing my hands in the blood of his crea- tures. Let not those who have never been placed in like circumstances, judge me harshly. Until they have been chained and beaten • — -until they find them- selves in the situation I was, borne away from home


and family towards a land of bondage — let them re- frain from saying what they would not do for liberty. How far I should have been justified in the sight of God and man, it is unnecessary now to speculate upon. It is enough to say that I am able to congratulate myself upon the harmless termination of an affair which threatened, for a time, to be attended with se- rious results.

Towards evening, on the first day of the calm, Ar- thur and myself were in the bow of the vessel, seat- ed on the windlass. We were conversing together of the probable destiny that awaited us, and mourning together over our misfortunes. Arthur said, and I agreed with him, that death was far less terrible than the living prospect that was before us. For a long time we talked of our children, our past lives, and of the probabilities of escape. Obtaining possession of the brig was suggested by one of us. We discussed the possibility of our being able, in such an event, to make our way to the harbor of New-York. I knew little of the compass ; but the idea of risking the ex- periment was eagerly entertained. The chances, for and against us, in an encounter with the crew, was canvassed Who could be relied upon, and who could not, the proper time and manner of the attack, were all talked over and over again. From the mo- ment the plot suggested itself I began to hope. I revolved it constantly in my mind. As difficulty af- ter difficulty arose, some ready conceit was at hand, demonstrating!; how it could be overcome. While


others slept, Arthur and I were maturing our plans. At length, with much caution, Robert was gradually made acquainted with our intentions. He approved of them at once, and entered into the conspiracy with a zealous spirit. There was not another slave we dared to trust. Brought up in fear and ignorance as they are, it can scarcely be conceived how servilely they will cringe before a white man's look. It was not safe to deposit so bold a secret with any of them, and finally we three resolved to take upon ourselves alone the fearful responsibility of the attempt.

At night, as has been said, we were driven into the hold, and the hatch barred down. How to reach the deck was the first difficulty that presented itself. On the bow of the brig, however, I had observed the small boat lying bottom upwards. It occurred to me that by secreting ourselves underneath it, we would not be missed from the crowd, as they were hurried down into the hold at night. I was selected to make the experiment, in order to satisfy ourselves of its fea- sibility. The next evening, accordingly, after supper, watching my opportunity, I hastily concealed myself beneath it. Lying close upon the deck, I could see what was going on around me, while wholly unper- ceived myself. In the morning, as they came up, I slipped from my hiding place without being observed. The result Was entirely satisfactory.

The captain and mate slept in the cabin of the for- mer. From Robert, who had frequent occasion, in his capacity of waiter, to make observations in that


quarter, we ascertained the exact position of their respective berths. He further informed us that there were always two pistols and a cutlass lying on the table. The crew's cook slept in the cook galley on deck, a sort of vehicle on wheels, that could be mov- ed about as convenience required, while the sailors, numbering only six, either slept in the forecastle, or in hammocks swung among the rigging.

Finally our arrangements were all completed. Ar- thur and I were to steal silently to the captain's cab- in, seize the pistols and cutlass, and as quickly as possi- ble despatch him and the mate. Robert, with a club, was to stand by the door leading from the deck down into the cabin, and, in case of necessity, beat back the sailors, until we could hurry to his assistance. We were to proceed then as circumstances might require. Should the attack be so sudden and successful as to prevent resistance, the hatch was to remain barred down ; otherwise the slaves were to be called up, and in the crowd, and hurry, and confusion of the time, we resolved to regain our liberty or lose our lives. I was then to assume the unaccustomed place of pilot, and, steering northward, we trusted that some lucky wind might bear us to the soil of freedom.

The mate's name was Biddee, the captain's I can- not now recall, though I rarely ever forget a name once heard. The captain was a small, genteel man, erect and prompt, with a proud bearing, and looked the personification of courage. If he is still living, and these pages should chance to meet his eye, he


will learn a fact connected with, the voyage of the brig, from Richmond to ]STew-Orleans, in 1841, not entered on his log-book.

We were all prepared, and impatiently waiting an opportunity of putting onr designs into execution, when they were frustrated by a sad and unforeseen event. Robert was taken ill. It was soon announced that lie had the small-pox. He continued to grow worse, and four days previous to our arrival inlSTew- Orleans he died. One of the sailors sewed him in his blanket, with a large stone from the ballast at his feet, and then laying him on a hatchway, and elevating it with tackles above the railing, the inanimate body of poor Robert was consigned to the white waters of the gulf.

We were all panic-stricken by the appearance of the small-pox. The captain ordered lime to be scat- tered through the hold, and other prudent precau- tions to be taken. The death of Robert, however, and the presence of the malady, oppressed me sadly, and I gazed out over the great waste of waters with a spirit that was indeed disconsolate.

An evening or two after Robert's burial, I was leaning on the hatchway near the forecastle, full of desponding thoughts, when a sailor in a kind voice asked me why I was so down-hearted. The tone and manner of the man assured me, and I answered, be- cause I was a freeman, and had been kidnapped. He remarked that it was enough to make any one down-hearted, and continued to interrogate me until


he learned tlie particulars of my whole history. He was evidently much interested in my behalf, and, in the blunt speech of a sailor, swore he would aid me all he could, if it " split his timbers." I requested him to furnish me pen, ink and paper, in order that I might write to some of my friends. He promised to obtain them — but how I could use them undiscover- ed was a difficulty. If I could only get into the fore- castle while his watch was off, and the other sailors asleep, the thing could be accomplished. The small boat instantly occurred to me. He thought we were not far from the Balize, at the mouth of the Mississip- pi, and it was necessary that the letter be written soon, or the opportunity would be lost. Accordingly, by arrangement, I managed the next night to secret myself again under the long-boat. His watch was off at twelve. I saw him pass into the forecastle, and in about an hour followed him. He was nodding over a table, half asleep, on which a sickly light was flick- ering, and on which also was a pen and sheet of pa- per. As I entered he aroused, beckoned me to a seat beside him, and pointed to the paper. I directed the letter to Henry B. Northup, of Sandy Hill — stating that I had been kidnapped, was then on board the brig Orleans, bound for ISTew-Orleans ; that it was then impossible for me to conjecture my ultimate des- tination, and requesting lie would take measures to rescue me. The letter was sealed and directed, and Manning, having read it, promised to deposit it in the New-Orleans post-office. I hastened back to my place


under the long-boat, and in the morning, as the slaves came up and were walking round, crept out unno- ticed and mingled with them.

My good friend, whose name was John Manning, was an Englishman by birth, and a noble-hearted, generous sailor as ever walked a deck. He had lived in Boston — was a tall, well-built man, about twenty- four years old, with a face somewhat pock-marked, but full of benevolent expression.

Nothing to vary the monotony of our daily life oc- curred, until we reached New-Orleans. On coming to the levee, and before the vessel was made fast, I saw Manning leap on shore and hurry away into the city. As he- started off he looked back over his shoul- der significantly, giving me to understand the object of his errand. Presently he returned, and passing close by me, hunched me with his elbow, with a pe- culiar wink, as much as to say, " it is all right."

The letter, as I have since learned, reached Sandy Hill. Mr. North up visited Albany and laid it before Governor Seward, but inasmuch as it gave no definite information as to my probable locality, it was not, at that time, deemed advisable to institute measures for my liberation. It was concluded to delay, trusting that a knowledge of where I was might eventually be obtained.

A happy and touching scene was witnessed imme- diately upon our reaching the levee. Just as Man- ning left the brig, on his way to the post-office, two men came up and called aloud for Arthur. The lat-

akthur's rescue. 75

ter, as he recognized tliem, was almost crazy with de- light. He could hardly be restrained from leaping over the brig's side ; and when they met soon after, he grasped them by the hand, and clung to them a long, long time. They were men from Norfolk, who had come on to New-Orleans to rescue him. His kidnappers, they informed him, had been arrested, and were then confined in the Norfolk prison. They conversed a few moments with the captain, and then departed with the rejoicing Arthur.

But in all the crowd that thronged the wharf, there was no one who knew or cared for me. Not one. No familiar voice greeted my ears, nor was there a single face that I had ever seen. Soon Arthur would rejoin his family, and have the satisfaction of seeing his wrongs avenged : my family, alas, should I ever see them more ? There was a feeling of utter deso- lation in my heart, filling it with a despairing and re- gretful sense, that I had not gone down with Robert to the bottom of the sea.

Very soon traders and consignees came on board. One, a tall, thin-faced man, with light complexion and a little bent, made his appearance, with a paper in his hand. Burch's gang, consisting of myself, Eli- za and her children, Harry, Lethe, and some others, who had joined us at Richmond, were consigned to him. This gentleman was Mr. Theophilus Freeman. Reading from his paper, he called, " Piatt." No one answered. The name was called again and again, but still there was no reply. Then Lethe was called, then


Eliza, then Harry, until the list was finished, each one stepping forward as his or her name was called.

" Captain, where's Piatt V demanded Theophilus Freeman.

The captain was unable to inform him, no one be- ing on board answering to that name.

"Who shipped thai nigger?" he again inquired of the captain, pointing to me.

" Burch," replied the captain.

" Your name is Piatt — you answer my description. Why don't you come forward ?" he demanded of me, in an angry tone.

I informed him that was not my name ; that I had never been called by it, but that I had no objection to it as I knew of.

" "Well, I will learn you your name," said he ; " and so you won't forget it either, by ," he added.

Mr. Theophilus Freeman, by the way, was not a whit behind his partner, Burch, in the matter of blas- phemy. On the vessel I had gone by the name of " Steward," and this was the first time I had ever been designated as Piatt — the name forwarded by Burch to his consignee. From the vessel I observ- ed the chain-gang at work on the levee. We passed near them as we were driven to Freeman's slave pen. This pen is very similar to Goodin's in Richmond, ex- cept the yard was enclosed by plank, standing up- right, with ends sharpened, instead of brick walls.

Including us, there were now at least fifty in this pen. Depositing our blankets in one of the small


buildings in the yard, and having been called up and fed, we were allowed to saunter about the enclosure until night, when we wrapped our blankets round us and laid down under the shed, or in the loft, or in the open yard, just as each one preferred.

It was but a short time I closed ray eyes that night. Thought was busy in ray brain. Could it be possible that I was thousands of miles from home — that I had been driven through the streets like a dumb beast — ■ that I had been chained and beaten without mercy — that I was even then herded with a drove of slaves, a slave myself? Were the events of the last few weeks realities indeed ? — or was I passing only through the dismal phases of a long, protracted dream ? It was no illusion. My cup of sorrow was full to overflow- ing. Then I lifted up my hands to God, and in the still watches of the night, surrounded by the sleeping forms of my companions, begged for mercy on the poor, forsaken captive. To the Almighty Father of us all — the freeman and the slave — I poured forth the supplications of a broken spirit, imploring strength from on high to bear up against the burden of my troubles, until the morning light aroused the slumber- ers, ushering in another day of bondage.


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