Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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William Fokd unfortunately became embarrassed in bis pecuniary affairs. A beavy judgment was ren- dered against bim in consequence of bis liaving be- come security for bis brotber, Franklin Ford, residing on Red River, above Alexandria, and wbo bad failed to meet his liabilities. He was also indebted to John M. Tibeats to a considerable amount in consideration of his services in building the mills on Indian Creek, and also a weaving-house, corn-mill and other erec- tions on the plantation at Bayou Boeuf, not yet com- pleted. It was therefore necessary, in order to meet these demands, to dispose of eighteen slaves, myself among the number. Seventeen of them, including Sam and Harry, were purchased by Peter Comptom

a planter also residing on Red River.


I was sold to Tibeats, in consequence, undoubtedly, of my slight skill as a carpenter. This was in the winter of 1842. T he d efifi ff^ my self from Freeman to Ford, as I ascertained fro m the publ ic__re£o rds in H : Ieans on my return, was date d June 23d ,

1S1L iAt the time of my"saTe~Eoxibeats, the price agreed to be given for me being more than the debt, Ford took a chattel mortgage of four hundred dollars. I am indebted for my life, as will hereafter be seen, to that mortgage.

I bade farewell to my good friends at the opening, and departed with my new master Tibeats. "We went down to the plantation on Bayou Boeuf, distant twenty-seven miles from the Pine Woods, to complete the unfinished contract. Bayou Boeuf is a sluggish, winding stream — one of those stagnant bodies of water common in that region, setting back from Red River. It stretches from a point not far from Alex- andria, in a south-easterly direction, and following its tortuous course, is more than fifty miles in length. Large cotton and sugar plantations line each shore, extending back to the borders of interminable swamps. It is alive with aligators, rendering it un- safe for swine, or unthinking slave children to stroll along its banks. Upon a bend in this bayou, a short distance from Cheney ville, was situated the plantation of Madam Ford — her brother, Peter Tanner, a great landholder, living on the opposite side.

On my arrival at Bayou Bceuf, I had the pleasure of meeting Eliza, whom I had not seen for several


months. She had not pleased Mrs. Ford, being more occupied in brooding over her sorrows than in attend- ing to her business, and had, in consequence, been sent down to work in the field on the plantation. She had grown feeble and emaciated, and was still mourning for her children. She asked me if I had forgotten them, and a great many times inquired if I still re- membered how handsome little Emily was — how much Randall loved her — and wondered if they were living still, and where the darlings could then be. She had sunk beneath the weight of an excessive grief. Her drooping form and hollow cheeks too plainly indi- cated that she had well nigh reached the end of her weary road.

Ford's overseer on this plantation, and who had the exclusive charge of it, was a Mr. Chapin, a kindly-dis- posed man, and a native of Pennsylvania. In com- mon with others, he held Tibeats in light estimation, which fact, in connection with the four hundred dol- lar mortgage, was fortunate for me.

I was now compelled to labor very hard. From earliest dawn until late at night, I was not allowed to be a moment idle. Notwithstanding which, Tibeats was never satisfied. He was continually cursing and complaining. He never spoke to me a kind word. I was his faithful slave, and earned him large wages every day, and yet I went to my cabin nightly, loaded with abuse and stinging epithets.

"We had completed the corn mill, the kitchen, and 80 forth, and were at work upon the weaving-house,


when I was guilty of an act, in that State punishabie with death. It was my first fight with Tibeats. The weaving-house we were erecting stood in the orchard a few rods from the residence of Chap in, or the " great house," as it was called. One night, having worked until it was too dark to see, I was ordered by Tibeats to rise very early in the morning, procure a keg of nails from Chapin, and commence putting on the clapboards. I retired to the cabin extremely tired, and having cooked a supper of bacon and corn cake, and conversed a while with Eliza, who occupied the same cabin, as also did Lawson and his wife Mary, and a slave named Bristol, laid down upon the ground floor, little dreaming of the sufferings that awaited me on the morrow. Before daylight I was on the piazza of the " great house," awaiting the appearance of over- seer Chapin. To have aroused him from his slumbers and stated my errand, would have been an unpardon- able boldness. At length he came out. Taking off my hat, I informed him Master Tibeats had directed me to call upon him for a keg of nails. Going into the store-room, he rolled it out, at the same time say- ing, if Tibeats preferred a different size, he would en- deavor to furnish them, but that I might use those until further directed. Then mounting his horse, which stood saddled and bridled at the door, he rode away into the field, whither the slaves had preceded him, while I took the keg on my shoulder, and pro- ceeding to the weaving-house, broke in the head, and commenced nailing on the clapboards.


As the day began to open, Tibeats came out of the house to where I was, hard at work. He seemed to be that morning even more morose and disagreeable than usual. He was my master, entitled by law to my flesh and blood, and to exercise over me such ty- rannical control as his mean nature prompted ; but there was no law that could prevent my looking upon him with intense contempt. I despised both his dis- position and his intellect. I had just come round to the keg for a further supply of nails, as he reached the weaving-house.

" I thought I told you to commence putting on weather-boards this morning," he remarked.

" Yes, master, and I am about it," I replied.

" "Where ? " he demanded.

" On the other side," was my answer.

He walked round to the other side, examined my work for a while, muttering to himself in a fault-find- ing tone.

" Didn't I tell you last night to get a keg of nails of Chapin ? " he broke forth again.

" Yes, master, and so I did ; and overseer said he would get another size for you, if you wanted them, when he came back from the field."

Tibeats walked to the keg, looked a moment at the contents, then kicked it violently. Coming towards me in a great passion, he exclaimed,

" G — d d — n you ! I thought you faiowed some- thing."

I made answer :_ "I tried to do as you told me,


master. I didn't mean anything wrong. Overseer said — " But he interrupted me with such a flood of curses that I was unable to finish the sentence. At length he ran towards the house, and going to the piazza, took down one of the overseer's whips. The whip had a short wooden stock, braided over with leather, and was loaded at the butt. The lash was three feet long, or thereabouts, and made of raw-hide strands.

At first I was somewhat frightened, and my impulse was to run. There was no one about except Rachel, the cook, and Chapin's wife, and neither of them were to be seen. The rest were in the field. I knew he intended to whip me, and it was the first time any one had attempted it since my arrival at Avoyelles. I felt, moreover, that I had been faithful — that I was guilty of no wrong whatever, and deserved commenda- tion rather than punishment. My fear changed to anger, and before he reached me I had made up my mind fully not to be whipped, let th« result be life or death.

"Winding the lash around his hand, and taking hold of the small end of the stock, he walked up to me, and with a malignant look, ordered me to strip.

" Master Tibeats, said I, looking him boldly in the face, " I will not." I was about to say something further in justification, but with concentrated ven geance, he sprang upon me, seizing me by the throat with one hand, raising the whip with the other, in the act of striking. Before the blow descended, however,


I had caught him by the collar of the coat, and drawn him closely to me. Reaching down, I seized him by the ankle, and pushing him back with the other hand, he fell over on the ground. Putting one arm around his leg, and holding it to my breast, so that his head and shoulders only touched the ground, I placed my foot upon his neck. He was completely in my power. My blood was up. It seemed to course through my veins like fire. In the frenzy of my madness I snatched the whip from his hand. He struggled with all his power ; swore that I should not live to see another day ; and that he would tear out my heart. But his struggles and his threats were alike in vain. I cannot tell how many times I struck him. Blow after blow fell fast and heavy upon his wriggling form. At length he screamed — cried murder — and at last the blasphemous tyrant called on God for mercy. But he who had never shown mercy did not receive it. The stiff stock of the whip warped round his cringing body until my right arm ached.

Until this time I had been too busy to look about me. Desisting for a moment, I saw Mrs. Chapin looking from the window, and Rachel standing in the kitchen door. Their attitudes expressed the utmost excitement and alarm. His screams had been heard in the field. Chapin was coming as fast as he could ride. I struck him a blow or two more, then pushed him from me with such a well-directed kick that he went rolling over on the ground.

Rising to his feet, and brushing the dirt from his


hair, he stood looking at me, pale with rage. We gazed at each other in silence. Not a word was ut- tered until Chapin galloped up to us.

"What is the matter?" he cried out.

" Master Tibeats wants to whip me for using the nails you gave me," I replied.

" What- is the matter with the nails ?" he inquired, turning to Tibeats.

Tibeats answered to the effect that they were too large, paying little heed, however, to Chapin's ques- tion, but still keeping his snakish eyes fastened mali- ciously on me.

"I am overseer here," Chapin began. "I told Piatt to take them and use them, and if they were not of the proper size I would get others on returning from the field. It is not his fault. Besides, I shall furnish such nails as I please. I hope you will understand that, Mr. Tibeats."

Tibeats made no reply, but, grinding his teeth and shaking his fist, swore he would have satisfaction, and that it was not half over yet. Thereupon he walk- ed away, followed by the overseer, and entered the house, the latter talking to him all the while in a sup- pressed tone, and with earnest gestures.

I remained where I was, doubting whether it was better to fly or abide the result, whatever it might be. Presently Tibeats came out of the house, and, saddling his horse, the only property he possessed be- sides myself, departed on the road to Chenyville.

When he was gone, Chapin came out, visibly exci-


ted, telling me not to stir, not to attempt to leave the plantation on any account whatever. He then went to the kitchen, and calling Hachel out, conversed with her some time. Coming back, he again charged me with great earnestness not to run, saying my master was a rascal ; that he had left on no good errand, and that there might be trouble before night. But at all events, he insisted upon it, I must not stir.

As I stood there, feelings of unutterable agony overwhelmed me. I was conscious that I had sub- jected myself to unimaginable punishment. The re- action that followed my extreme ebullition of anger produced the most painful sensations of regret. An unfriended, helpless slave — what could I do, what could I say, to justify, in the remotest manner, the heinous act I had committed, of resenting a white man's contumely and abuse. I tried to pray — I tried to beseech my Heavenly Father to sustain me in my sore extremity, but emotion choked my utterance, and I could only bow my head upon my hands and weep. For at least an hour I remained in this situation, find- ing relief only in tears, when, looking up, I beheld Tibeats, accompanied by two horsemen, coming down the bayou. They rode into the yard, jumped from their horses, and approached me with large whips, one of them also carrying a coil of rope.

" Cross your hands," commanded Tibeats, with the addition of such a shuddering expression of blasphe- my as is not decorous to repeat.



" You need not bind me, Master Tibeats, I am ready to go with you anywhere," said I.

One of his companions then stepped forward, swear- ing if I made the least resistance he would break my head — he would tear me limb from limb — he would cut my black throat — and giving wide scope to other similar expressions. Perceiving any importunity al- together vain, I crossed my hands, submitting hum- bly to whatever disposition they might please to make of me. Thereupon Tibeats tied my wrists, drawing the rope around them with his utmost strength. Then he bound my ankles in the same manner. In the meantime the other two had slipped a cord within my elbows, running it across my back, and tying it firm- ly. It was utterly impossible to move hand or foot. With a remaining piece of rope Tibeats made an awk- ward noose, and placed it about my neck.

" ]N"ow, then," inquired one of Tibeats' companions, " where shall we hang the nigger ?"

One proposed such a limb, extending from the body of a peach tree, near the spot where we were stand- ing. His comrade objected to it, alleging it would break, and proposed another. Finally they fixed up- on the latter.

During this conversation, and all the time they were binding me, I uttered not a word. Overseer Chapin, during the progress of the scene, was walk- ing hastily back and forth on the piazza. Rachel was crying by the kitchen door, and Mrs. Chapin was still



looking from the window. Hope died within my heart. Surely my time had come. I should never behold the light of another day — never behold the faces of my children — the sweet anticipation I had cherished with such fondness. I should that hour struggle through the fearful agonies of death ! None would mourn for me — none revenge me. Soon my form would be mouldering in that distant soil, or, per- haps, be cast to the slimy reptiles that filled the stag- nant waters of the bayou ! Tears flowed down my cheeks, but they only afforded a subject of insulting comment for my executioners.

At length, as they were dragging me towards the tree, Chapin, who had momentarily disappeared from the piazza, came out of the house and walked towards us. He had a pistol in each hand, and as near as I can now recall to mind, spoke in a firm, determined manner, as follows :

" Gentlemen, I have a few words to say. You had better listen to them. Whoever moves that slave an- other foot from where he stands is a dead man. In the first place, he does not deserve this treatment. It is a shame to murder him in this manner. I never knew a more faithful boy than Piatt. You, Tibeats, are in the fault yourself. You are pretty much of a scoundrel, and I know it, and you richly deserve the flogging you have received. In the next place, I have been overseer on this plantation seven years, and, in the absence of "William Ford, am master here. My duty is to protect his interests, and that duty I shall


perform. You are not responsible — you are a worth- less fellow. Ford holds a mortgage on Piatt of four hundred dollars. If you hang him he loses his debt. Until that is canceled you have no right to take his life. You have no right to take it any way. There is a law for the slave as well as for the white man. You are no better than a murderer.

" As for you," addressing Cook and Ramsay, a couple of overseers from neighboring plantations, " as for you — begone ! If you have any regard for your own safety, I say, begone."

Cook and Ramsay, without a further word, mount- ed their horses and rode away. Tib eats, in a few minutes, evidently in fear, and overawed by the deci- ded tone of Chapin, sneaked off like a coward, as he was, and mounting his horse, followed his companions.

I remained standing where I was, still bound, with the rope around my neck. As soon as they were gone, Chapin called Rachel, ordering her to run to the field, and tell Lawson to hurry to the house with- out delay, and bring the brown mule with him, an animal much prized for its unusual neetness. Pres- ently the boy appeared.

" Lawson," said Chapin, " you must go to the Pine Woods. Tell your master Ford to come here at once — that he must not delay a single moment. Tell him they are trying to murder Piatt. Now hurry, boy. Be at the Pine Woods by noon if you kill the mule."

Chapin stepped into the house and wrote a pass. When he returned, Lawson was at the door, mounted


on his mule. Receiving the pass, he plied the whip right smartly to the beast, dashed ont of the yard, and turning up the bayou on a hard gallop, in less time than it has taken me to describe the scene, was out of sight.

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