Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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At the end of a month, my services being no lon- ger required at Tanner's I was sent over the bayou again to my master, whom I found engaged in build- ing the cotton press. This was situated at some dis- tance from the great house, in a rather retired place. I commenced working once more in company with Tibeats, being entirely alone with him most part of the time. I remembered the words of Chapin, his precautions, his advice to beware, lest in some unsus- pecting moment he might injure me. They were al- ways in my mind, so that I lived in a most uneasy state of apprehension and fear. One eye was on my work, the other on my master. I determined to give him no cause of offence, to work still more diligently,


if possible, than I had done, to bear whatever abuse he might heap upon me, save bodily injury, humbly and patiently, hoping thereby to soften in some de- gree his manner towards me, until the blessed time might come when I should be delivered from his clutches.

The third morning after my return, Chapin left the plantation for Cheneyville, to be absent until night. Tibeats, on that morning, was attacked with one of those periodical fits of spleen and ill-humor to which he was frequently subject, rendering him still more disagreeable and venomous than usual.

It was about nine o'clock in the forenoon, when I was busily employed with the jack-plane on one of the sweeps. Tibeats was standing by the work-bench, fitting a handle into the chisel, with which he had been engaged previously in cutting the thread of the screw.

" You are not planing that down enough," said he.

" It is just even with the line," I replied.

" You're a d — d liar," he exclaimed passionately.

" Oh, well, master," I said, mildly, " I will plane it down more if you say so," at the same time proceed- ing to do as I supposed he desired. Before one sha- ving had been removed, however, he cried out, say- ing I had now planed it too deep — it was too small — I had spoiled the sweep entirely. Then followed curses and imprecations. I had endeavored to do ex- actly as he directed, but nothing would satisfy the un- reasonable man. In silence and in dread I stood by the


sweep, holding the jack-plane in my hand, not know- ing what to do, and not daring to be idle. His anger grew more and more violent, until, finally, with an oath, such a bitter, frightful oath as only Tibeats could utter, he seized a hatchet from the work-bench and darted towards me, swearing he would cut my head open.

It was a moment of life or death. The sharp, bright blade of the hatchet glittered in the sun. In another instant it would be buried in my brain, and yet in that instant — so quick will a man's thoughts come to him in such a fearful strait — I reasoned with my- self. If I stood still, my doom was certain ; if I fled, ten chances to one the hatchet, flying from his hand with a too-deadly and unerring aim, would strike me in the back. There was but one course to take. Springing towards him with all my power, and meet- ing him full half-way, before he could bring down the blow, with one hand I caught his uplifted arm, with the other seized him by the throat. We stood look- ing each other in the eyes. In his I could see mur- der. I felt as if I had a serpent by the neck, watch- ing the slightest relaxation of my gripe, to coil itself round my body, crushing and stinging it to death. I thought to scream aloud, trusting that some ear might catch the sound — but Chapin was away ; the hands were in the field ; there was no living soul in sight or hearing.

The good genius, which thus far through life has saved me from the hands of violence, at that moment


suggested a lucky thought. With a vigorous and sudden kick, that brought him on one knee, with a groan, I released mj hold upon his throat, snatched the hatchet, and cast it beyond reach.

Frantic with rage, maddened beyond control, he seized a white oak stick, five feet long, perhaps, and as large in circumference as his hand could grasp, which was lying on the ground. Again he rushed towards me, and again I met him, seized him about the waist, and being the stronger of the two, bore him to the earth. "While in that position I obtained possession of the stick, and rising, cast it from me, also.

He likewise arose and ran for the broad-axe, on the work-bench. Fortunately, there was a heavy plank lying upon its broad blade, in such a manner that he could not extricate it, before I had sprung upon his back. Pressing him down closely and heavily on the plank, so that the axe was held more firmly to its place, I endeavored, but in vain, to break his grasp upon the handle. In that position we remained some minutes.

There have been hours in my unhappy life, many of them, when the contemplation of death as the end of earthly sorrow — of the grave as a resting place for the tired and worn out body — has been pleasant to dwell upon. But such contemplations vanish in the hour of peril. "No man, in his full strength, can stand undismayed, in the presence of the " king of terrors." Life is dear to every living thing; the


worm that crawls upon the ground will struggle for it. At that moment it was dear to me, enslaved and treated as I was.

ISTot able to unloose his hand, once more I seized him by the throat, and this time, with a vice-like gripe that soon relaxed his hold. He became pliant and unstrung. His face, that had been white with passion, was now black from suffocation. Those small serpent eyes that spat such venom, were now full of horror — two great white orbs starting from their sockets !

There was " a lurking devil" in my heart that prompted me to kill the human blood-hound on the spot — to retain the gripe on his accursed throat till the breath of life was gone ! I dared not murder him, and I dared not let him live. If I killed him, my life must pay the forfeit — if he lived, my life only would satisfy his vengeance. A voice within whispered me to fly. To be a wanderer among the swamps, a fugitive and a vagabond on the face of the earth, was preferable to the life that I was lead- ing.

My resolution was soon formed, and swinging him from the work-bench to the ground, I leaped a fence near by, and hurried across the plantation, passing the slaves at work in the cotton field. At the end of a quarter of a mile I reached the wood-pasture, and it was a short time indeed that I had been running it. Climbing on to a high fence, I could see the cotton press, the great house, and the space between.


It was a conspicuous position, from whence the whole plantation was in view. I saw Tibeats cross the field towards the house, and enter it — • then he came out, carrying his saddle, and presently mounted his horse and galloped away.

I was desolate, but thankful. Thankful that my life was spared, — desolate and discouraged with the prospect before me. What would become of me ? Who would befriend me ? Whither should I fly ? Oh, God ! Thou who gavest me life, and implanted in my bosom the love of life — who filled it with emotions such as other men, thy creatures, have, do not forsake me. Have pity on the poor slave — let me not perish. If thou dost not protect me, I am. lost — lost! Such supplications, silently and unut- tered, ascended from my inmost heart to Heaven. But there was no answering voice — no sweet, low tone, coming down from on high, whispering to my soul, " It is I, be not afraid." I was the forsaken of God, it seemed — the despised and hated of men !

In about three-fourths of an hour several of the slaves shouted and made signs for me to run. Pres- ently, looking up the bayou, I saw Tibeats and two others on horse-back, coming at a fast gait, followed by a troop of dogs. There were as many as eight or ten. Distant as I was, I knew them. They belonged on the adjoining plantation. The dogs used on Bayou Boeuf for hunting slaves are a kind of blood-hound, but a far more savage breed than is found in the Northern States. They will attack a negro, at their


master's bidding, and cling to him as the common bull-dog will cling to a four footed animal. Fre- quently their loud bay is heard in the swamps, and then there is speculation as to what point the runaway will be overhauled — the same as alSTew-York hunter stops to listen to the hounds coursing along the hill- sides, and suggests to his companion that the fox will be taken at such a place. I never knew, a slave es- caping with his life from Bayou Bceuf. One reason is, they are not allowed to learn the art of swimming, and are incapable of crossing the most inconsiderable stream. In their flight they can go in no direction but a little way without coming to a bayou, when the inevitable alternative is presented, of being drowned or overtaken by the dogs. In youth I had practised in the clear streams that flow through my native dis- trict, until I had become an expert swimmer, and felt at home in the watery element.

I stood upon the fence until the dogs had reached the cotton press. In an instant more, their long, sav- age yells announced they were on my track. Leap- ing down from my position, I ran towards the swamp. Fear gave me strength, and I exerted it to the utmost. Every few moments I could hear the yelpings of the dogs. They were gaining upon me. Every howl was nearer and nearer. Each moment I expected they would spring upon my back — expected to feel their long teeth sinking into my flesh. There were so many of them, I knew they would tear me to pie- ces, that they would worry me, at once, to death, I


gasped for breath — gasped forth a half-uttered, cho- king prayer to the Almighty to save me — to give me strength to reach some wide, deep bayou where I could throw them off the track, or sink into its wa- ters. Presently I reached a thick palmetto bottom. As I fled through them they made a loud rustling noise, not loud enough, however, to drown the voices of the dogs.

Continuing my course due south, as nearly as I can judge, I came at length to water just over shoe. The hounds at that moment could not have been five rods behind me. I could hear them crashing and plunging through the palmettoes, their loud, eager yells making the whole swamp clamorous with the sound. Hope revived a little as I reached the water. If it were only deeper, they might loose the scent, and thus disconcerted, afford me the opportunity of eva- ding them. Luckily, it grew deeper the farther I proceeded — now over my ankles — now half-way to my knees — now sinking a moment to my waist, and then emerging presently into more shallow places. The dogs had not gained upon me since I struck the water. Evidently they were confused. Now their savage intonations grew more and more distant, as- suring me that I was leaving them. Finally I stop- ped to listen, but the long howl came booming on the air again, telling me I was not yet safe. From bog to bog, where I had stepped, they could still keep upon the track, though impeded by the water. At length, to my great joy, I came to a wide bayou, and plung-


ing in, had soon stemmed its sluggish current to the other side. There, certainly, the dogs would be con- founded — the current carrying down the stream all traces of that slight, mysterious scent, which enables the quick-smelling hound to follow in the track of the fugitive.

After crossing this bayou the water became so deep I could not. run. I was now in what I after- wards learned was the " Great Pacoudrie Swamp." It was filled with immense trees ■ — the sycamore, the gum, the cotton wood and cypress, and extends, I am informed, to the shore of the Calcasieu river. For thirty or forty miles it is without inhabitants, save wild beasts — the bear, the wild-cat, the tiger, and great slimy reptiles, that are crawling through it everywhere. Long before I reached the bayou, in fact, from the time I struck the water until I emer- ged from the swamp on my return, these reptiles surrounded me. I saw hundreds of moccasin snakes. Every log and bog — every trunk of a fallen tree, over which I was compelled to step or climb, was alive with them. They crawled away at my ap- proach, but sometimes in my haste, I almost placed my hand or foot upon them. They are poisonous serpents— their bite more fatal than the rattlesnake's. Besides, I had lost one shoe, the sole having come entirely off, leaving the upper only dangling to my ankle.

I saw also many alligators, great and small, lying in the water, or on pieces of fioodwood. The noise I


made usually startled them, when they moved off and plunged into the deepest places. Sometimes, how- ever, I would come directly upon a monster before observing it. In such cases, I would start back, run a short way round, and in that manner shun them. Straight forward, they will run a short distance rapidly, but do not possess the power of turning. In a crook- ed race, there is no difficulty in evading them.

About two o'clock in the afternoon, I heard the last of the hounds. Probably they did not cross the bayou. "Wet and weary, but relieved from the sense of instant peril, I continued on, more cautious and afraid, however, of the snakes and alligators than I had been in the earlier portion of my flight. ]STow, before stepping into a muddy pool, I would strike the water with a stick. If the waters moved, I would go around it, if not, would venture through.

At length the sun went down, and gradually night's trailing mantle shrouded the great swamp in dark- ness. Still I staggered on, fearing every instant I should feel the dreadful sting of the moccasin, or be crushed within the jaws of some disturbed alligator. The dread of them now almost equaled the fear of the pursuing hounds. The moon arose after a time, its mild light creeping through the overspreading branches, loaded with long, pendent moss. I kept traveling forwards until after midnight, hoping all the while that I would soon emerge into some less desolate and dangerous region. But the water grew deeper and the walking more difficult than ever. I


perceived it would be impossible to proceed much, farther, and knew not, moreover, what hands I might fall into, should I succeed in reaching a human hab- itation. Not provided with a pass, any white man would be at liberty to arrest me, and place me in prison until such time as my master should " prove property, pay charges, and take me away." I was an estray, and if so unfortunate as to meet a law-abiding citizen of Louisiana, he would deem it his duty to his neighbor, perhaps, to put me forthwith in the pound. Really, it vas difficult to determine which I had most reason to fear — dogs, alligators or men !

After midnight, however, I came to a halt. Ima- gination cannot picture the dreariness of the scene. The swamp was resonant with the quacking of innu- merable ducks ! Since the foundation of the earth, in all probability, a human footstep had never before so far penetrated the recesses of the swamp. It was not silent now — silent to a degree that rendered it oppressive, —as it was when the sun was shining in the heavens. My midnight intrusion had awakened the feathered tribes, which seemed to throng the mo- rass in hundreds of thousands, and their garrulous throats poured forth such multitudinous sounds — ■ there was such a fluttering of wings — such sullen plunges in the water all around me — that I was af- frighted and appalled. All the fowls of the air, and all the creeping things of the earth appeared to have assembled together in that particular place, for the purpose of filling it with clamor and confusion. Not


by human dwellings — not in crowded cities alone, are the sights and sounds of life. The wildest places of the earth are full of them. Even in the heart of that dismal swamp, God had provided a refuge and a dwelling place for millions of living things.

The moon had now risen above the trees, when I resolved upon a new project. Thus far Iliad endeav- ored to travel as nearly south as possible. Turning about I proceeded in a north-west direction, my ob- ject being to strike the Pine "Woods in the vicinity of Master Ford's. Once within the shadow of his pro- tection, I felt I would be comparatively safe.

My clothes were in tatters, my hands, face, and body covered with scratches, received from the sharp knots of fallen trees, and in climbing over piles of brush and fioodwood. My bare foot was full of thorns. I was besmeared with muck and mud, and the green slime that had collected on the surface of the dead water, in which I had been immersed to the neck many times during the day and night. Hour after hour, and tiresome indeed had they become, I contin- ued to plod along on my north-west course. The wa- ter began to grow less deep, and the ground more firm under my feet. At last I reached the Pacoudrie, the same wide bayou I had swam while " outward bound." I swam it again, and shortly after thought I heard a cock crow, but the sound was faint, and it might have been a mockery of the ear. The water ■receded from my advancing footsteps — now I had left the bogs behind me — now I was on dryland


tliat gradually ascended to the plain, and I knew \ was somewhere in the " Great Pine Woods."

Just at day -break I came to an opening — a sort of small plantation — but one I had never seen before. In the edge of the woods I came upon two men, a slave and his young master, engaged in catching wild hogs. The white man I knew would demand my pass, and not able to give him one, would take me into possession. I was too wearied to run again, and too desperate to be taken, and therefore adopted a ruse that proved entirely successful. Assuming a fierce expression, I walked directly towards him, look- ing him steadily in the face. As I approached, he moved backwards with an air of alarm. It was plain he was much affrighted — that he looked upon me as some infernal goblin, just arisen from the bowels of the swamp !

" "Where does William Ford live ? " I demanded, in no gentle tone.

" He lives seven miles from here," was the reply.

" Which is the way to his place ? " I again demand- ed, trying to look more fiercely than ever.

" Do you see those pine trees yonder ? " he asked, pointing to two, a mile distant, that rose far above their fellows, like a couple of tall sentinels, overlook- ing the broad expanse of forest.

" I see them," was the answer.

" At the feet of those pine trees," he continued, " runs the Texas road. Turn to the left, and it will lead you to William Ford's."


"Without further parley, I hastened forward, happy as he was, no doubt, to place the widest possible dis- tance between us. Striking the Texas road, I turned to the left hand, as directed, and soon passed a great fire, where a pile of logs were burning. I went to it, thinking I would dry my clothes ; but the gray light of the morning was fast breaking away, — some pass- ing white man might observe me ; besides, the heat overpowered me with the desire of sleep : so, linger- ing no longer, I continued my travels, and finally, about eight o'clock, reached the house of Master Ford.

The slaves were all absent from the quarters, at their work. Stepping on to the piazza, I knocked at the door, which was soon opened by Mistress Ford. My appearance was so changed — I was in such a wo- begone and forlorn condition, she did not know me. Inquiring if Master Ford was at home, that good man made his appearance, before the question could be answered. I told him of my flight, and all the par- ticulars connected with it. He listened attentively, and when I had concluded, spoke to me kindly and sympathetically, and taking me to the kitchen, called John, and ordered him to prepare me food. I had tasted nothing since daylight the previous morning.

"When John had set the meal before me, the madam came out with a bowl of milk, and many little deli- cious dainties, such as rarely please the palate of a slave. I was hungry, and I was weary, but neither food nor rest afforded half the pleasure as did the blessed voices speaking kindness and consolation. It


was the oil and the wine which the Good Samaritan in the " Great Pine Woods " was ready to pour into the wounded spirit of the slave, who came to him, stripped of his raiment and half-dead.

They left me in the cabin, that I might rest. Blessed be sleep ! It visiteth all alike, descending as the dews of heaven on the bond and free. Soon it nestled to my bosom, driving away the troubles that oppressed it, and bearing me to that shadowy region, where I saw again the faces, and listened to the voices of my children, who, alas, for aught I knew in my waking hours, had fallen into the arms of that other sleep, from which they never would arouse.


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