Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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The first year of Epps' residence on the bayou, 1845, the caterpillars almost totally destroyed the cotton crop throughout that region. There was little to be done, so that the slaves were necessarily idle half the time. However, there came a rumor to Ba- you Bceuf that wages were high, and laborers in great demand on the sugar plantations in St. Mary's parish. This parish is situated on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, about one hundred and forty miles from Avoyelles. The Eio Teche, a considerable stream, flows through St. Mary's to the gulf.


It was determined by the planters, on the receipt of this intelligence, to make up a drove of slaves to "be sent down to Tuckapaw in St. Mary's, for the pur- pose of hiring them out in the cane fields. Accord- ingly, in the month of September, there were one hundred and forty-seven collected at Holmesville, Abram, Bob and myself among the number. Of these about one-half were women. Epps, Alonson Pierce, Henry Toler, and Addison Roberts, were the white men, selected to accompany, and take charge of the drove. They had a two-horse carriage and two sad- dle horses for their use. A large wagon, drawn by four horses, and driven by John, a boy belonging to Mr. Roberts, carried the blankets and provisions.

About 2 o'clock in the afternoon, having been fed, preparations were made to depart. The duty assign- ed me was, to take charge of the blankets and pro- visions, and see that none were lost by the way. The carriage proceeded in advance, the wagon following ; behind this the slaves were arranged, while the two, horsemen brought up the rear, and in this order the procession moved out of Holmesville.

That night we reached a Mr. McCrow's plantation, a distance of ten or fifteen miles, when we were or- dered to halt. Large fires were built, and each one spreading his blanket on the ground, laid down upon it. The white men lodged in the great house. An hour before day we were aroused by the drivers com- ing among us, cracking their whips and ordering us to arise. Then the blankets were rolled up, and be-


ing severally delivered to me and deposited in tho wagon, the procession set forth again.

The following night it rained violently. We were all drenched, our clothes saturated with mud and wa- ter. Reaching an open shed, formerly a gin-house) we found beneath it such shelter as it afforded. There was not room for all of us to lay down. There. We remained, huddled together, through the night, con- tinuing our march, as usual, in the morning. During the journey we were fed twice a day, boiling our bacon and baking our corn-cake at the fires in the same manner as in our huts. We passed through La- fayetteville, Mountsville, ISTew-Town, to Centreville, where Bob and Uncle Abram were hired. Our num- ber decreased as we advanced — nearly every sugar plantation requiring the services of one or more.

On our route we passed the Grand Coteau or prairie, a vast space of level, monotonous country, without a tree, except an occasional one which had been trans- planted near some dilapidated dwelling. It was once thickly populated, and under cultivation, but for some cause had been abandoned. The business of the scattered inhabitants that now dwell upon it is prin- cipally raising cattle. Immense herds were feeding upon it as we passed. In the centre of the Grand Coteau one feels as if he were on the ocean, out of sight of land. As far as the eye can see, in all directions, it is but a ruined and deserted waste.

I was hired to Judge Turner, a distinguished man, and extensive planter, whose large esta^

T 13


on Bayou Salle, within a few miles of the gulf. Bay on Salle is a small stream flowing into the hay of Atchafalaya. For some days I was employed at Turner's in repairing his sugar house, when a cane knife was put into my hand, and with thirty or forty others, I was sent into the field. I found no such difficulty in learning the art of cutting cane that I had in picking cotton. It came to me natural- ly and intuitively, and in a short time I was able to keep up with the fastest knife. Before the cutting was over, however, Judge Tanner transferred me from the field to the sugar house, to act there in the ca- pacity of driver. From the time of the commence- ment of sugar making to the close, the grinding and boiling does not cease day or night. The whip was given me with directions to use it upon any one who was caught standing idle. If I failed to obey them to the letter, there was another one for my own back. In addition to this my duty was to call on and off the different gangs at the proper time. I had no regular periods of rest, and could never snatch but a few mo- ments of sleep at a time.

It is the custom in Louisiana, as I presume it is in other slave States, to allow the slave to retain what- •ever compensation he may obtain for services per- formed on Sundays. In this way, only, are they able to provide themselves with any luxury or conveni- ence whatever. When a slave, purchased, or kidnap- ped in the North, is transported to a cabin on Bayou 23 -- "f be is furnished with neither knife, nor fork,


nor dish, nor kettle, nor any other thing in the shape of crockery, or furniture of any nature or description. He is furnished with a blanket before he reaches there, and wrapping that around him, he can either stand up, or lie down upon the ground, or on aboard, if his master has no nse for it. He is at liberty to find a gonrd in which to keep his meal, or he can eat his corn from the cob, just as he pleases. To ask the master for a knife, or skillet, or any small convenience of the kind, would be answered with a kick, or laugh- ed at as a joke. Whatever necessary article of this nature is found in a cabin has been purchased with Sunday money. However injurious to the morals, it is certainly a blessing to the physical condition of the slave, to be permitted to break the Sabbath. Otherwise there would be no way to provide him- self with any utensils, which seem to be indispensa- ble to him who is compelled to be his own cook. On cane plantations in sugar time, there is no dis- tinction as to the days of the week. It is well un- derstood that all hands must labor on the Sabbath, and it is equally well understood that those especial- ly who are hired, as I was to Judge Turner, and oth- ers in succeeding years, shall receive remuneration for it. It is usual, also, in the most hurrying time of cotton-picking, to require the same extra service. From this source, slaves generally are afforded an opportunity of earning sufficient to purchase a knife, a kettle, tobacco and so forth. The females, discard- ing the latter luxury, are apt to expend their little


revenue in the purchase of gaudy ribbons, wherewithal to deck their hair in the merry season of the holidays.

I remained in St. Mary's until the first of January, during which time my Sunday money amounted to ten dollars. I met with other good fortune, for which I was indebted to my violin, my constant companion, the source of profit, and soother of my sorrows during years of servitude. There was ' a grand party of whites assembled at Mr. Yarney's, in Centreville, a hamlet in the vicinity of Turner's plantation. I was employed to play for them, and so well pleased were the merry-makers with my performance, that a con- tribution was taken for my benefit, which amounted to seventeen dollars.

"With this sum in possession, I was looked upon by my fellows as a millionaire. It afforded me great pleasure to look at it — to count it over and over again, day after day. Visions of cabin furniture, of water pails, of pocket knives, new shoes and coats and hats, floated through my fancy, and up through all rose the triumphant contemplation, that I was the wealthiest " nigger" on Bayou Bceuf.

Vessels run up the Bio Teche to Centreville. "While there, I was bold enough one day to present myself before the captain of a steamer, and beg per- mission to hide myself among the freight. I was emboldened to risk the hazard of such a step, from overhearing a conversation, in the course of which I ascertained he was a native of the I^orth. I did not relate to him the particulars of my history, but only


expressed an ardent desire to escape from slavery to a free State. He pitied me, but said it would be im- possible to avoid the vigilant custom house officers in New-Orleans, and that detection would subject him to punishment, and his vessel to confiscation. My earnest entreaties evidently excited his sympathies, I and doubtless he would have yielded to them, could he have done so with any kind of safety. I was compelled to smother the sudden flame that lighted up my bosom with sweet hopes of liberation, and turn my steps once more towards the increasing darkness of despair.

Immediately after this event the drove assembled at Centreville, and several of the owners having ar- rived and collected the monies due for our services, we were driven back to Bayou Bceuf. It was on our return, while passing through a small village, that I caught sight of Tib eats, seated in the door of a dirty grocery, looking somewhat seedy and out of repair. Passion and poor whisky, I doubt not, have ere this laid him on the shelf.

During our absence, I learned from Aunt Phebe ^ and Patsey, that the latter had been getting deeper and deeper into trouble. The poor girl was truly an object of pity. " Old Hogjaw," the name by which Epps was called, when the slaves were by themselves, had beaten her more severely and frequently than ever. As surely as he came from Holmesville, elated with liquor — and it was often in those days — he would whip her, merely to gratify the mistress ; would


punish her to an extent almost beyond endurance, for an offence of which he himself was the sole and irre- sistible cause. In his sober moments he could not al- ways be prevailed upon to indulge his wife's insatia- ble thirst for vengeance.

To be rid of Patsey — to place her beyond sight or reach, by sale, or death, or in any other manner, of late years, seemed to be the ruling thought and pas- sion of my mistress. Patsey had been a favorite when a child, even in the great house. She had been pet- ted and admired for her uncommon sprightliness and pleasant disposition. She had been fed many a time, so Uncle Abram said, even on biscuit and milk, when the madam, in her younger days,- was wont to call her to the piazza, and fondle her as she would a play- ful Idtten. But a sad change had come over the spirit of the woman. ISTow, only black and angry fiends ministered in the temple of her heart, until she could look on Patsey but with concentrated venom.

Mistress Epps was not naturally such an evil wo- man, after all. She was possessed of the devil, jeal- ousy, it is true, but aside from that, there was much in her character to admire. Her father, Mr. Roberts, resided in Cheneyville, an influential and honorable man, and as much respected throughout the parish as any other citizen. She had been well educated at some institution this side the Mississippi ; was beauti- ful, accomplished, and usually good-humored. She was kind to all of us but Patsey — frequently, in the absence of her husband, sending out to us some little

patsey's sokkows. 199

dainty from her own table. In other situations — in a different society from that which exists on the shores of Bayou Boeuf, she would have been pronounced an elegant and fascinating woman. An ill wind it was that blew her into the arms of Epps.

He respected and loved his wife as much as a coarse nature like his is capable of loving, but supreme sel- fishness always overmastered conjugal affection.

"He loved as well as baser natures can,

But a mean heart and soul were in that man."

He was ready to gratify any whim — to grant any re- quest she made, provided it did not cost too much. Patsey was equal to any two of his slaves in the cot- ton field. He could not replace her with the same money she would bring. The idea of disposing of her, therefore, could not be entertained. The mistress did not regard her at all in that light. The pride of the haughty woman was aroused ; the blood of the fiery southern boiled at the sight of Patsey, and noth- ing less than trampling out the life of the helpless bondwoman would satisfy her.

Sometimes the current of her wrath turned upon him whom she had jus.t cause to hate. But the storm of angry words would pass over at length, and there would be a season of calm again. At such times Pat- sey trembled with fear, and cried as if her heart would break, for she knew from painful experience, that if mistress should work herself to the red-hot pitch of rage, Epps would quiet her at last with a promise that Patsey should be flogged — a promise he was sure to


keep. Thus did pride, and jealousy, and vengeance war with avarice and brute-passion in the mansion of my master, filling it with daily tumult and conten- tion. Thus, upon the head of Patsey — the simple- minded slave, in whose heart God had implanted the seeds of virtue — the force of all these domestic tem- pests spent itself at last.

During the summer succeeding my return from St. Mary's parish, I conceived a plan of providing myself with food, which, though simple, succeeded "beyond expectation. It has been followed by many others in my condition, up and down the bayou, and of such benefit has it become that I am almost persuaded to look upon myself as a benefactor. That summer the worms got into the bacon. JSTothing but ravenous hunger could induce us to swallow it. The weekly allowance of meal scarcely sufficed to satisfy us. It was customary with us, as it is with all in that region, where the allowance is exhausted before Saturday night, or is in such a state as to render it nauseous and disgusting, to hunt in the swamps for coon and opossum. This, however, must be done at night, af- ter the day's work is accomplished. There are plan- ters whose slaves, for months at a time, have no other meat than such as is obtained in this manner. ]S"o objections are made to hunting, inasmuch as it dis- penses with drafts upon the smoke-house, and because •every marauding coon that is killed is so much saved from the standing corn. They are hunted with dogs and clubs, slaves not being allowed the use of fire-arms.


The flesh of the coon is palatable, but verily there is nothing in all butcherdom so delicious as a roasted 'possum. They are a round, rather long-bodied, little* animal, of a whitish color, with nose like a pig, and caudal extremity like a rat. They burrow among the roots and in the hollows of the gum tree, and are clumsy and slow of motion. They are deceitful and cunning creatures. On receiving the slightest tap of a stick, they will roll over on the ground and feign death. If the hunter leaves him, in pursuit of anoth- er, without first taking particular pains to break his neck, the chances are, on his return, he is not to be found. The little animal has out witted the enemy ■ — has " played 'possum" — and is off. But after a long and hard day's work, the weary slave feels little like going to the swamp for his supper, and half the time prefers throwing himself on the cabin floor with- out it. It is for the interest of the master that the ser- vant should not suffer in health from starvation, and it is also for his interest that he should not become gross from over-feeding. In the estimation of the owner, a slave is the most serviceable when in rather a lean and lank condition, such a condition as the race-horse is in, when fitted for the course, and in that condition they are generally to be found on the sugar and cot- ton plantations along Red River.

My cabin was within a few rods of the bayou bank,

and necessity being indeed the mother of invention, I

resolved upon a mode of obtaining the requisite

amount of food, without the trouble of resorting night- I*


ly to the woods. This was to construct a fish trap. Having, in niy mind, conceived the manner in which it could be done, the next Sunday I set about putting it into practical execution. It may be impossible for me to convey to the reader a full and correct idea of its construction, but the following will serve as a gen- eral description :

A frame between two and three feet square is made, and of a greater or less height, according to the depth of water. Boards or slats are nailed on three sides of this frame, not so closely, however, as to pre- vent the water circulating freely through it. A door is fitted into the fourth side, in such manner that it will slide easily up and down in the grooves cut in the two posts. A movable bottom is then so fitted that it can be raised to the top of the frame without difficulty. In the centre of the movable bottom an auger hole is bored, and into this one end of a handle or round stick is fastened on the under side so loosely that it will turn. The handle ascends from the centre of the movable bottom to the top of the frame, or as much higher as is desirable. Up and down this handle, in a great many places, are gimlet holes, through which small sticks are inserted, extending to opposite sides of the frame. So many of these small sticks are running out from the handle in all direc- tions, that a fish of any considerable dimensions can- not pass through without hitting one of them. The frame is then placed in the water and made sta- tionary.


The trap is " set" by sliding or drawing up the door, and kept in that position by another stick, one end of which rests in a notch on the inner side, the other end in a notch made in the handle, running up from the centre of the movable bottom. The trap is baited by rolling a handful of wet meal and cotton together until it becomes hard, and depositing it in the back part of the frame. A fish swimming through the upraised door towards the bait, necessarily strikes one of the small sticks turning the handle, which dis placing the stick supporting the door, the latter falls, securing the fish within the frame. Taking hold of the top of the handle, the movable bottom is then drawn up to the surface of the water, and the fish taken out. There may have been other such traps in use before mine was constructed, but if there were I had never happened to see one. Bayou Bceuf abounds in fish of large size and excellent quality, and after this time I was very rarely in want of one for myself, or for my comrades. Thus a mine was opened — a new resource was developed, hitherto un- thought of by the enslaved children of Africa, who toil and hunger along the shores of that sluggish, but prolific stream.

About the time of which I am now writing, an event occurred in our immediate neighborhood, which made a deep impression upon me, and which shows the state of society existing there, and the manner in which affronts are oftentimes avenged. Directly op- posite our quarters, on the other side of the bayou,


was situated the plantation of Mr. Marshall. He "belonged to a family among the most wealthy and aristocratic in the country. A gentleman from the vicinity of Natchez had been negotiating with him for the purchase of the estate. One day a messenger came in great haste to our plantation, saying that a bloody and fearful battle was going on at Mar- shall's — that blood had been spilled — and unless the combatants were forthwith separated, the result would be disastrous.

On repairing to Marshall's house, a scene presented itself that beggars description. On the floor of one of the rooms lay the ghastly corpse of the man from Natchez, while Marshall, enraged and covered with wounds and blood, was stalking back and forth, " breathing out threatenings and slaughter." A diffi- culty had arisen in the course of their negotiation, high words ensued, when drawing their weapons, the deadly strife began that ended so unfortunately. Marshall was never placed in confinement. A sort of trial or investigation was had at Marksville, when he was acquitted, and returned to his plantation, rather more respected, as I thought, than ever, from the fact that the blood of a fellow being was on his soul.

Epps interested himself in his behalf, accompany- ing him to Marksville, and on all occasions loudly justifying him, but his services in this respect did not afterwards deter a kinsman of this same Marshall from seeking his life also. A brawl occurred between them over a gambling-table, which terminated in a


deadly feud. Riding up on horseback in front of the house one day, armed with pistols and bowie knife, Marshall challenged him to come forth and make a final settlement of the quarrel, or he would brand him as a coward, and shoot him like a dog the first opportunity. ISTot through cowardice, nor from any conscientious scruples, in my opinion, but through the influence of his wife, he was restrained from accept- ing the challenge of his enemy. A reconciliation, however, was effected afterward, since which time they have been on terms of the closest intimacy.

Such occurrences, which would bring upon the parties concerned in them merited and condign pun- ishment in the Northern States, are frequent on the bayou, and pass without notice, and almost without comment. Every man carries his bowie knife, and when two fall out, they set to work hacking and thrusting at each other, more like savages than civ- ilized and enlightened beings.

The existence of Slavery in its most cruel form among them, has a tendency to brutalize the humane and finer feelings of their nature. Daily witnesses of human suffering — listening to the agonizing screeches of the slave — beholding him writhing beneath the merciless lash — bitten and torn by dogs — dying without attention, and buried without shroud or coffin — it cannot otherwise be expected, than that they should become brutified and reckless of human life. It is true there are many kind-hearted and good men in the parish of Avoyelles — such men as "Wil-


liam Ford — who can look with pity upon the suffer- ings of a slave, just as there are, over all the world, sensitive and sympathetic spirits, who cannot look with indifference upon the sufferings of any creature which the Almighty has endowed with life. It is not the fault of the slaveholder that he is cruel, so much as it is the fault of the system under which he lives. He cannot withstand the influence of habit and associations that surround him. Taught from earliest childhood, by all that he sees and hears, that the rod is for the slave's back, he will not be apt to change his opinions in maturer years.

There may be humane masters, as there certainly are inhuman ones — there may be slaves well-clothed, well-fed, and happy, as there surely are those half- clad, half-starved and miserable ; nevertheless, the institution that tolerates such wrong and inhumanity as I have witnessed, is a cruel, unjust, and barbarous one. Men may write fictions portraying lowly life as it is, or as it is not — may expatiate with owlish gravity upon the bliss of ignorance — discourse flip- pantly from arm chairs of the pleasures of slave life ; but let them toil with him in the field — sleep with him in the cabin — feed with him on husks ; let them ' behold him scourged, hunted, trampled on, and they will come back with another story in their mouths. Let them know the heart of the poor slave — learn his secret thoughts — thoughts he dare not utter in the hearing of the white man ; let them sit by him in the silent watches of the night — converse with


him in trustful confidence, of " life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," and they will find that ninety- nine out of every hundred are intelligent enough to understand their situation, and to cherish in their bosoms the love of freedom, as passionately as them- selves.


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