Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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In the month of June, 1852, in pursuance of a pre- vious contract, Mr. Avery, a carpenter of Bayou Rouge, commenced the erection of a house for Mas- ter Epps. It has previously been stated that there are no cellars on Bayou Boauf ; on the other hand, such is the low and swampy nature of the ground, the great houses are usually built upon spiles. An- other peculiarity is, the rooms are not plastered, but the ceiling and sides are covered with matched cy- press boards, painted such color as most pleases the owner's taste. Generally the plank and boards are sawed by slaves with whip-saws, there being no water- power upon which mills might be built within many miles. "When the planter erects for himself a dwel- ling, therefore, there is plenty of extra work for his


slaves. Having had some experience under Tibeats as a carpenter, I was taken from the field altogether, on the arrival of Avery and his hands. . Among them was one to whom I owe an immeas- urable debt of gratitude. Only for him, in all prob- ability, I should have ended my days in slavery. He was my deliverer — a man whose true heart over- flowed with noble and generous emotions. To the last moment of my existence I shall remember him with feelings of thankfulness. His name was Bass, and at that time he resided in Marksville. It will be difficult to convey a correct impression of his ap- pearance or character. He was a large man, between forty and fifty years old, of light complexion and light hair. He was very cool and self-possessed, fond of argument, but always speaking with extreme de- liberation. He was that kind of person whose pecu- liarity of manner was such that nothing he uttered ever gave offence. "What would be intolerable, com- ing from the lips of another, could be said by him with impunity. There was not a man on Red River, perhaps, that agreed with him on the subject of poli- tics or religion, and not a man, I venture to say, who discussed either of those subjects half as much. It seemed to be taken for granted that he would espouse the unpopular side of every local question, and it al- ways created amusement rather than displeasure among his auditors, to listen to the ingenious and original manner in which he maintained the contro- versy. He was a bachelor — an " old bachelor," ac-


cording to the true acceptation of the term — having no kindred living, as he knew of, in the world. Nei- ther had he any permanent abiding place ■ — wander- ing frcm one State to another, as his fancy dictated. He had lived in Marksville three or four years, and in the prosecution of his business as a carpenter ; and in consequence, likewise, of his peculiarities, was quite extensively known throughout the parish of Avoyelles. He was liberal to a fault ; and his many acts of kindness and transparent goodness of heart rendered him popular in the community, the senti- ment of which he unceasingly combated.

He was a native of Canada, from whence he had wandered in early life, and after visiting all the prin- cipal localities in the northern and western States, in the course of his peregrinations, arrived in the un- healthy region of the Red River. His last removal was froni Illinois. Whither he has now gone, I re- gret to be obliged to say, is unknown to me. He gathered up his effects and departed quietly from Marksville the day before I did, the suspicions of his instrumentality in procuring my liberation rendering such a step necessary. For the commission of a just and righteous act he would undoubtedly have suffer- ed death, had he remained within reach of the slave- whipping tribe on Bayou Bceuf.

One day, while working on the new house, Bass and Epps became engaged in a controversy, to which, as will be readily supposed, I listened with absorbing interest. They were discussing the subj ect of Slavery.


" I tell you what it is Epps," said Bass, " it's all wrong — all wrong, sir — there's no justice nor right- eousness in it. I wouldn't own a slave if I was rich as Crcesus, which I am not, as is perfectly well under- stood, more particularly among my creditors. There's another humbug — the credit system — humbug, sir ; no credit — no debt. Credit leads a man into tempta- tion. Cash down is the only thing that will deliver him from evil. But this question of Slavery • what right have you to your niggers when you come down to the point ? "

" What right ! " said Epps, laughing ; " why, I bought 'em, and paid for 'em."

Of course you did ; the law says you have the right to hold a nigger, but begging the law's pardon, it lies. Yes, Epps, when the law says that it's a liar, and the truth is not in it. Is every thing right be- cause the law allows it ? Suppose they'd pass a law taking away your liberty and making you a slave ?"

" Oh, that ain't a supposable case," said Epps, still laughing ; " hope you don't compare me to a nigger, Bass."

" "Well," Bass answered gravely, " no, not exactly. But I have seen niggers before now as good as I am, and I have no acquaintance with any white man in these parts that I consider a whit better than myself. Now, in the sight of God, what is the difference, Epps,. between a white man and a black one ?"

" All the difference in the world," replied Epps. <: You might as well ask what the difference is be-


tween a white man and a baboon. Now, I've seen one of them critters in Orleans that knowed just as mich as any nigger I've got. Yon'd call them feller citizens, I s'pose % " — and Epps indulged in a loud laugh at his own wit.

" Look here, Epps," continued his companion ; " you can't laugh me down in that way. Some men are witty, and some ain't so witty as they think they are. Now let me ask you a question. Are all men created free and equal as the Declaration of Independence holds they are ? "

" Yes," responded Epps, " but all men, niggers, and monkeys ain't ; " and hereupon he broke forth into a more boisterous laugh than before.

" There are monkeys among white people as well as black, when you come to that," coolly remarked Bass. "I know some white men that use arguments no sensible monkey would. But let that pass. These niggers are human beings. If they don't know as much as their masters, whose fault is it ? They are not allowed to know anything. You have books and papers, and can go where you please, and gather intelligence in a thousand ways. But your slaves have no privileges. You'd whip one of them if caught reading a book. They are held in bondage, generation after generation, deprived of mental im- provement, and who can expect them to possess much knowledge ? If they are not brought down to a level with the brute creation, you slaveholders will never be blamed for it. If they are baboons, or stand no


higher in the scale of intelligence than such animals, yon and men like you will have to answer for it. There's a sin, a fearful sin, resting on this nation, thai will not go unpunished forever. There will be a reckoning yet — yes, Epps, there's a clay coming that will burn as an oven. It may be sooner or it may be later, but it's a coming as sure as the Lord is just."

" If you lived up among the Yankees in New- England," said Ej3ps, " I expect you'd be one of them cursed fanatics that know more than the constitution, and go about peddling clocks and coaxing niggers to run away."

" If I was in New-England," returned Bass, " I would be just what I am here. I would say that Slavery was an iniquity, and ought to be abolished. I would say there was no reason nor justice in the law, or the constitution that allows one man to hold another man in bondage. It would be hard for you to lose your property, to be sure, but it wouldn't be half as hard as it would be to lose your liberty. You have no more right to your freedom, in exact justice, than Uncle Abram yonder. Talk about black skin, and black blood ; why, how many slaves are there on this bayou as white as either of us ? And what dif- ference is there in the color of the soul ? Pshaw ! the whole system is as absurd as it is cruel. You may own niggers and behanged, but I wouldn't own one for the best plantation in Louisiana."

" You like to hear yourself talk, Bass, better than any man I know of. You would argue that black was


white, or white black, if any body would contradict you. Nothing suits you in this world, and I don't believe you will be satisfied with the next, if you should have your choice in them."

Conversations substantially like the foregoing were not unusual between the two after this ; Epps drawing him out more for the purpose of creating a laugh at his expense, than with a view of fairly discussing the merits of the question. He looked upon Bass, as a man ready to say anything merely for the pleasure of hearing his own voice ; as somewhat self-conceited, perhaps, contending against his faith and judgment, in order, simply, to exhibit his dexterity in argumen- tation.

He remained at Epps' through the summer, visiting Marksville generally once a fortnight. The more I saw of him, the more I became convinced he was a man in whom I could confide. Nevertheless, my previous ill-fortune had taught me to be extremely cautious. It was not my place to speak to a white man except when spoken to, but I omitted no oppor- tunity of throwing myself in his way, and endeavored constantly in every possible manner to attract his attention. In the early part of August he and my- self were at work alone in the house, the other car- penters having left, and Epps being absent in the field. Now was the time, if ever, to broach the sub- ject, and I resolved to do it, and submit to whatever consequences might ensue. We were busily at work in the afternoon, when I stopped suddenly and said — ■


" Master Bass, I want to ask you what part of the country you came from ?"

" "Why, Piatt, what put that into your head ? " he answered. " You wouldn't know if I should tell you." After a moment or two he added — "I was born in Canada ; now guess where that is."

" Oh, I know where Canada is," said I, "I have been there myself."

" Yes, I expect you are well acquainted all through that country," he remarked, laughing incredulously.

"As sure as I live, Master Bass," I replied, " I have been there. I have been in Montreal and Kingston, and Queenston, and a great many places in Canada, and I have been in York State, too — in Buffalo, and Rochester, and Albany, and can tell you the names of the villages on the Erie canal and the Champlain canal."

Bass turned round and gazed at me a long time without uttering a syllable.

"How came you here?" he inquired, at length, "Master Bass," I answered, "if justice had been done, I never would have been here."

" "Well, how's this ? " said he. " Who are you ? You have been in Canada sure enough ; I know all the places you mention. How did you happen to get here ? Come, tell me all about it."

" I have no friends here," was my reply, " that I can put confidence in. I am afraid to tell you, though I don't believe you would tell Master Epps if I should."

bass' assurances. 271

He assured me earnestly he would keep every word I might speak to him a profound secret, and his curi- osity was evidently strongly excited. It was a long story, I informed him, and would take some time to relate it. Master Epps would be back soon, but if he would see me that night after all were asleep, I would repeat it to him. He consented readily to the ar- rangement, and directed me to come into the building where we were then at work, and I would find him there. About midnight, when all was still and quiet, I crept cautiously from my cabin, and silently enter- ing the unfinished building, found him awaiting me.

After further assurances on his part that I should not be betrayed, I began a relation of the history of my life and misfortunes. He was deeply interested, asking numerous questions in reference to localities and events. Having ended my story I besought him to write to some of my friends at the North, acquaint- ing them with my situation, and begging them to for- ward free papers, or take such steps as they might consider proper to secure my release. He promised to do so, but dwelt upon the danger of such an act in case of detection, and now impressed upon me the great necessity of strict silence and secresy. Before we parted our plan of operation was arranged.

"We agreed to meet the next night at a specified place among the high weeds on the bank of the bayou, some distance from master's dwelling. There he was to write down on paper the names and address of sev- eral persons, old friends in the North, to whom he


would direct letters during his next visit to Marks- ville. It was not deemed prudent to meet in the new house, inasmuch as the light it would be necessary to use might possibly be discovered. In the course of the day I managed to obtain a few matches and a piece of candle, unperceivecl, from the kitchen, during a temporary absence of Aunt Phebe. Bass had pen- cil and paper in his tool chest.

At the appointed hour we met on the bayou bank, and creeping among the high weeds, I lighted the candle, while he drew forth pencil and paper and pre- pared for business. I gave him the names of Wil- liam Perry, Cephas Parker and Judge Marvin, all of Saratoga Springs, Saratoga county, New- York. I had been employed by the latter in the United States Hotel, and had transacted business with the former to a considerable extent, and trusted that at least one of them would be still living at that place. He care- fully wrote the names, and then remarked, thought- fully-

"It is so many years since you left Saratoga, all these men may be dead, or may have removed. You say you obtained papers at the custom house in ISTew- York. Probably there is a record of them there, and I think it would be well to write and ascertain."

I agreed with him, and again repeated the circum stances related heretofore, Connected with my visit tz the custom house with Brown and Hamilton. We lingered on the bank of the bayou an hour or more, conversing upon the subject which now engrossed our


thoughts. I could no longer doubt his fidelity, and freely spoke to him of the many sorrows I had borne in silence, and so long. I spoke of my wife and chil- dren, mentioning their names and ages, and dwelling upon the unspeakable happiness it would be to clasp them to my heart once more before I died. I caught him by the hand, and with tears and passionate en- treaties implored him to befriend me — to restore me to my kindred and to liberty — promising I would weary Heaven the remainder of my life with prayers that it would bless and prosper him. In the enjoyment of freedom — surrounded by the associations of youth, and restored to the bosom of my family — that prom- ise is not yet forgotten, nor shall it ever be so long as I have strength to raise my imploring eyes on high.

" Oh, blessings on his kindly voice and on his silver hair, And blessings on his whole life long, until he meet me there."

He overwhelmed me with assurances of friendship and faithfulness, saying he had never before taken so deep an interest in the fate of any one. He spoke of himself in a somewhat mournful tone, as a lonely man, a wanderer about the world — that he was growing, old, and must soon reach the end of his earthly journey, and lie down to his final rest with- out kith or kin to mourn for him, or to remember him — that his life was of little value to himself, and henceforth should be devoted to the accomplishment of my liberty, and to an unceasing warfare against

the accursed shame of Slavery.

L* na


After this time we seldom spoke to, or recognized each other. He was, moreover, less free in his con- versation with Epps on the subject of Slavery. The remotest suspicion that there was any unusual intima- cy — any secret understanding between us — never once entered the mind of Epps, or any other person, white or black, on the plantation.

I am often asked, with an air of incredulity, how I succeeded so many years in keeping from my daily and constant companions the knowledge of my true name and history. The terrible lesson Burch taught me, impressed indelibly upon my mind the danger and uselessness of asserting I was a freeman. There was no possibility of any slave being able to assist me, while, on the other hand, there was a possibility of his exposing me. When it is recollected the whole current of my thoughts, for twelve years, turned to the contemplation of escape, it will not be wondered at, that I was always cautious and on my guard. It woidd have been an act of folly to have proclaimed my right to freedom ; it would only have subjected me to severer scrutiny — probably have consigned me to some more distant and inaccessible region than even Bayou Bceuf. Edwin Epps was a person utter- ly regardless of a black man's rights or wrongs — ut- terly destitute of any natural sense of justice, as 1 well knew. It was important, therefore, not only as regarded my hope of deliverance, but also as regard- ed the few personal priviliges I was permitted to en- joy, to keep from him the history of my life.


The Saturday night subsequent to our interview at the water's edge, Bass went home to Marksville. The next day, being Sunday, he employed himself in his own room writing letters. One he directed to the Collector of Customs at J^ew-Youk, another to Judge Marvin, and another to Messrs. Parker and Perry joint- ly. The latter was the one which led to my recovery. He subscribed my true name, but in the postscript in- timated I was not the writer. The letter itself shows that he considered himself engaged in a dangerous undertaking — no less than running "the risk of his life, if detected." I did not see the letter before it was mailed, but have since obtained a copy, which is here inserted :

" Bayou Boeuf, August 15, 1852. " Mr. William Perry or Mr. Cephas Parker :

" Gentlemen — It having been a long time since I have seen or heard from you, and not knowing that you are living, it is with uncertainty that I write to you, but the necessity of the case must be my excuse.

" Having been born free, just across the river from you, I am. certain you must know me, and I am here now a slave. I wish you to obtain free papers for me, and forward them to me at Marksville, Louisiana, Parish of Avoyelles, and oblige


" The way I came to be a slave, I was taken sick in Washing- ton City, and was insensible for some time. When I recover- ed my reason, I was robbed of my free-papers, and in irons on my way to this State, and have never been able to get any one to write for me until now ; and he that is writing for me runs the risk of his life if detected."


The allusion to myself in the work recently issued, entitled " A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin," contains the first part of this letter, omitting the postscript. Nei- ther are the full names of the gentlemen to whom it is directed correctly stated, there being a slight dis- crepancy, probably a typographical error. To the postscript more than to the body of the communica- tion am I indebted for my liberation, as will present- ly be seen.

When Bass returned from Marksville he informed me of what he had done. We continued our mid- night consultations, never speaking to each other through the day, excepting as it was necessary about the work. As nearly as he was able to ascertain, it would require two weeks for the letter to reach Sara- toga in due course of mail, and the same length of time for an answer to return. Within six weeks, at the farthest, we concluded, an answer would arrive, if it arrived at all. A great many suggestions were now made, and a great deal of conversation took place between us, as to the most safe and proper course to pursue on receipt of the free papers. They would stand between him and harm, in case we were over- taken and arrested leaving the country altogether. It would be no infringement of law, however much it might provoke individual hostility, to assist a freeman to regain his freedom.

At the end of four weeks he was again at Marks- ville, but no answer had arrived. I was sorely disap- pointed, but still reconciled myself with the reflection


that sufficient length, of time had not yet elapsed — that there might have been delays — and that I could not reasonably expect one so soon. Six, seven, eight, and ten weeks passed by, however, and nothing came. I was in a fever of suspense whenever Bass visited Marksville, and could scarcely close my eyes until his return. Finally my master's house was finished, and the time came when Bass must leave me. The night before his departure I was wholly given up to despair. I had clung to him as a drowning man clings to the floating spar, knowing if it slips from his grasp he must forever sink beneath the waves. The all-glorious hope, upon which I had laid such eager hold, was crumbling to ashes in my hands. I felt as if sinking down, down, amidst the bitter waters of Slavery, from the unfathomable depths of which I should never rise again.

The generous heart of my friend and benefactor was touched with pity at the sight of my distress. He en- deavored to cheer me up, promising to return the day before Christmas, and if no intelligence was received in the meantime, some further step would be under- taken to effect our design. He exhorted me to keep up my spirits — to rely upon^his continued efforts in my behalf, assuring me, in most earnest and impres- sive language, that my liberation should, from thence- forth, be the chief object of his thoughts.

In his absence the time passed slowly indeed. I looked forward to Christmas with intense anxiety and impatience. I had about given up the expectation of


receiving any answer to the letters. They might have miscarried, or might have been misdirected. Perhaps those at Saratoga, to whom they had been addressed, were all dead ; perhaps, engaged in their pursuits, they did not consider the fate of an obscure, unhappy black man of sufficient importance to be noticed. My whole reliance was in Bass. The faith I had in him was continually re-assuring me, and enabled me to stand up against the tide of disappointment that had overwhelmed me.

So wholly was I absorbed in reflecting upon my sit- uation and prospects, that the hands with whom I la- bored in the field often observed it. Patsey would ask me if I was sick, and Uncle Abram, and Bob, and "Wiley frequently expressed a curiosity to know what I could be thinking about so steadily. But I evaded their inquiries with some light remark, and kept my thoughts locked closely in my breast.

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It ain't what you don't know that gets you into trouble. It's what you know for sure that just ain't so.