Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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labors on sugar plantations — the mode of planting cane of hoeing

cane cane ricks cutting cane description of the cane knife

"wlnrowing preparing for succeeding crops description of

hawkins' sugar mill on bayou bosuf — the Christmas holidays —

the carnival season of the children of bondage the christmas

supper red, the favorite color the violin, and the consolation

it afforded the christmas dance lively, the coquette — -sam

roberts, and his rivals slave songs southern liee as it is



In consequence of my inability in cotton-picking, Epps was in the habit of hiring me out on sugar plantations during the season of cane-cutting and sugar-making. He received for my services a dollar a day, with the money supplying my place on his cotton plantation. Cutting cane was an employment that suited me, and for three successive years I held the lead row at Hawkins', leading a gang of from fifty to an hundred hands.

In a previous chapter the mode of cultivating cot- ton is described. This may be the proper place to speak of the manner of cultivating cane.

The ground is prepared in beds, the same as it is prepared for the reception of the cotton seed, except


it is ploughed deeper. Drills are made in the same* manner. Planting commences in January, and con- tinues until April. It is necessary to plant a sugar field only once in three years. Three crops are taken before the seed or plant is exhausted.

Three gangs are employed in the operation. One draws the cane from the rick, or stack, cutting the top and flags from the stalk, leaving only that part which is sound and healthy. Each joint of the cane has an eye, like the eye of a potato, which sends forth a sprout when buried in the soil. Another gang lays the cane in the drill, placing two stalks side by side in such manner that joints will occur once in four or six inches. The third gang follows with hoes, drawing earth upon the stalks, and covering them to the depth of three inches.

In four weeks, at the farthest, the sprouts appear above the ground, and from this time forward grow with great rapidity. A sugar field is hoed three times, the same as cotton, save that a greater quantity of earth is drawn to the roots. By the first of Au- gust hoeing is usually over. About the middle of September, whatever is required for seed is cut and stacked in ricks, as they are termed. In October it is ready for the mill or sugar-house, and then the gen- eral cutting begins. The blade of a cane-knife is fif- teen inches long, three inches wide in the middle, and tapering towards the point and handle. The blade is thin, and in order to%be at all serviceable must be kept very sharp. Every third hand takes the lead of



two others, one of whom is on each side of him. The lead hand, in the first place, with a blow of his knife shears the flags from the stalk. He next cuts off the top down as far as it is green. He must be careful to sever all the green from the ripe part, inasmuch as the juice of the former sours the molasses, and ren- ders it unsalable. Then he severs the stalk at the root, and lays it directly behind him. His right and left hand companions lay their stalks, when cut in the same manner, upon his. To every three hands there is a cart, which follows, and the stalks are thrown into it by the younger slaves, when it is drawn to the su- gar-house and ground.

If the planter apprehends a frost, the cane is win- rowed. "Winrowing is the cutting the stalks at an early period and throwing them lengthwise in the wa- ter furrow in such a manner that the tops will cover the butts of the stalks. They will remain in this con- dition three weeks or a month without souring, and secure from frost. When the proper time arrives, they are taken up, trimmed and carted to the sugar- house.

In the month of January the slaves enter the field again to prepare for another crop. The ground is now strewn with the tops, and flags cut from the past year's cane. On a dry day fire is set to this combus- tible refuse, which sweeps over the field, leaving it bare and clean, and ready for the hoes. The earth is loosened about the roots of the old stubble, and in process of time another crop springs up from the last

hawkins' sugak mill. 211

year's seed. It is the same the year following ; but the third year the seed has exhausted its strength, and the field must be ploughed and planted again. The second year the cane is sweeter and yields more than the first, and the third year more than the second.

During the three seasons I labored on Hawkins' plantation, I was employed a considerable portion of the time in the sugar-house. He is celebrated as the producer of the finest variety of white sugar. The following is a general description of his sugar-house and the process of manufacture :

The mill is an immense brick building, standing on the shore of the bayou. Running out from the build- ing is an open shed, at least an hundred feet in length and forty or fifty feet in width. The boiler in which the steam is generated is situated outside the main building ; the machinery and engine rest on a brick pier, fifteen feet above the floor, within the body of the building. The machinery turns two great iron rollers, between two and three feet in diameter and six or eight feet in length. They are elevated above the brick pier, and roll in towards each other. An end- less carrier, made of chain and wood, like leathern belts used in small mills, extends from the iron rollers out of the main building and through the entire length of the open shed. The carts in which the cane is brought from the field as fast as it is cut, are un- loaded at the sides of the shed. All along the endless carrier are ranged slave children, whose business it is to place the cane upon it, when it is conveyed through


the shed into the main building, where it falls be- tween the rollers, is crushed, and drops upon another carrier that conveys it out of the main building in an opposite direction, depositing it in the top of a chim- ney upon a fire beneath, which consumes it. It is ne- cessary to burn it in this manner, because otherwise it would soon fill the building, and more especially because it would soon sour and engender disease. The juice of the cane falls into a conductor underneath the iron rollers, and is carried into a reservoir. Pipes convey it from thence into five filterers, holding sev- eral hogsheads each. These filterers are filled with bone-black, a substance resembling pulverized char- coal. It is made of bones calcinated in close vessels, and is used for the purpose of decolorizing, by filtra- tion, the cane juice before boiling. Through these five filterers it passes in succession, and then runs into a large reservoir underneath the ground floor, from whence it is carried up, by means of a steam pump, into a clarifier made of sheet iron, where it is heated by steam until it boils. From the first clarifier it is carried in pipes to a second and a third, and thence into close iron pans, through which tubes pass, filled with steam. While in a boiling state it flows through three pans in succession, and is then carried in other pipes down to the coolers on the ground floor. Cool- ers are wooden boxes with sieve bottoms made of the finest wire. As soon as the syrup passes into the coolers, and is met by the air, it grains, and the mo- lasses at once escapes through the sieves into a cistern


"below. It is then white or loaf sugar of the finest kind — clear, clean, and as white as snow. "When cool, it is taken out, packed in hogsheads, and is ready for market. The molasses is then carried from the cistern into the upper story again, and by another process converted into brown sugar.

There are larger mills, and those constructed differ- ently from the one thus imperfectly described, but none, perhaps, more celebrated than this anywhere on Bayou Bceuf. Lambert, of New-Orleans, is a part- ner of Hawkins. He is a man of vast wealth, hold- ing, as I have been told, an interest in over forty dif- ferent sugar plantations in Louisiana.


_ The only respite from constant labor the slave has • through the whole year, is during the Christmas holi- days. Epps allowed us three — others allow four, five and sis days, according to the measure of their generosity. It is the only time to which they look forward with any interest or pleasure. _. They are glad when night comes, not only because it brings them a few hours repose, but because it brings them one day nearer Christmas. It is hailed with eqnal delight by the old and the young ; even Uncle Abram ceases to glorify Andrew Jackson, and Patsey forgets her many sorrows, amid the general hilarity of the holidays. It is the time of feasting, and frolicking, and fiddling — ■ the carnival season with the children of bondage. They are the only days when they are allowed a little restricted liberty, and heartily indeed do they enjoy it.


It is the custom for one planter to give a " Christ- mas supper," inviting the slaves from neighboring plantations to join his own on the occasion; for in- stance, one year it is given by Epps, the next by Mar- shall, the next by Hawkins, and so on. Usually from three to five hundred are assembled, coming togethei on foot, in carts, on horseback, on mules, riding double and triple, sometimes a boy and girl, at others a girl and two boys, and at others again a boy, a girl and am old woman. Uncle Abram astride a mule, with AuntPhebe and Patsey behind him, trotting towards a Christmas supper, would be no uncommon sight on Bayou Boeuf.

Then, too, " of all days i' the year," they array themselves in their best attire. The cotton coat has been washed clean, the stump of a tallow candle has been applied to the shoes, and if so fortunate as to pos- sess a rimless or a crownless hat, it is placed jauntily on the head. They are welcomed with equal cordial- ity, however, if they come bare-headed and bare- footed to the feast. As a general thing, the women wear handkerchiefs tied about their heads, but if chance has thrown in their way a fiery red ribbon, or a cast-off bonnet of their mistress' grandmother, it is sure to be worn on such occasions. Red — the deep blood red — as decidedly the favorite color among the enslaved damsels of my acquaintance. If a red rib- bon does not encircle the neck, you will be certain to find all the hair of their woolly heads tied up with red strings of one sort or another.


The table is spread in the open air, and loaded with varieties of meat and piles of vegetables. Bacon and corn meal at such times are dispensed with. Some- times the cooking is performed in the kitchen on the plantation, at others in the shade of wide branching trees. In the latter case, a ditch is dug in the ground, and wood laid in and burned until it is filled with glowing coals, over which chickens', ducks, turkeys, pigs, and not unfrequently the entire body of a wild ox, are roasted. They are furnished also with flour, of which biscuits are made, and often with peach and other preserves, with tarts, and every manner and de- scription of pies, except the mince, that being an ar- ticle of pastry as yet unknown among them. Only the slave who has lived all the years on his scanty al- lowance of meal and bacon, can appreciate such sup- pers. "White people in great numbers assemble to witness the gastronomical enjoyments.

They seat themselves at the rustic table — the males on one side, the females on the other. The two be- tween whom there may have been an exchange of tenderness, invariably manage to sit opposite ; for the omnipresent Cupid disdains not to hurl his arrows into the simple hearts of slaves./ Unalloyed and exulting happiness lights up the dark faces of them all. 'The ivory teeth, contrasting with their black complexions, exhibit two long, white streaks the whole extent of the table. All round the bountiful board a multitude of eyes roll in ecstacy. Giggling and laughter and the clattering of cutlery and crockery succeed. Cuf-


fee's elbow hunches liis neighbor's side, impelled by an involuntary impulse of delight ; Kelly shakes her finger at Sambo and laughs, she knows not why, and so the fun and merriment flows on.

"When the viands have disappeared, ^nd the hungry maws of the children of toil are satisfied, then, next in the order of amusement, is the Christmas dance. My business on these gala days always was to play on the violin. The African race is a music-loving one, proverbially ; and many there were among my fellow- bondsmen whose organs of tune were strikingly devel- oped, and who could thumb the banjo with dexterity ; but at the expense of appearing egotistical, I must, nevertheless, declare, that I was considered the Ole Bull of Bayou Bceuf. My master often received let- ters, sometimes from a distance of ten miles, request- ing him to send me to play at a ball or festival of the whites. He received his compensation, and usually I also returned with many picayunes jingling in my pockets — the extra contributions of those to whose delight I had administered. In this manner I became more acquainted than I otherwise would, up and down the bayou. The young men and maidens of Holmes- ville always knew there was to be a jollification some- where, whenever Piatt Epps was seen passing through the town with his fiddle in his hand. " "Where are you going now, Piatt ?" and " What is coming off to- night, Piatt ?" would be interrogatories issuing from every door and window, and many a time when there was no special hurry, yielding to pressing importuni-


tics, Piatt would draw his bow, and sitting astride his mule, perhaps, discourse musically to a crowd of delighted children, gathered around him in the street.

Alas ! had it not been for my beloved violin, I scarce- ly can conceive how I could have endured the long years of bondage. It introduced me to great houses — relieved me of many days' labor in the field — sup- plied me with conveniences for my cabin — with pipes and tobacco, and extra pairs of shoes, and often- times led me away from the presence of a hard mas- ter, to witness scenes of jollity and mirth. It was my companion — the friend of my bosom — triumph- ing loudly when I was joyful, and uttering its soft, melodious consolations when I was sad. Often, at midnight, when sleep had fled affrighted from the cabin, and my soul was disturbed and troubled with the contemplation of my fate, it would sing me a song of peace. On holy Sabbath days, when an hour or two of leisure was allowed, it would accompany me to some quiet place on the bayou bank, and, lifting up its voice, discourse kindly and pleasantly indeed. It heralded my name round the country — made me friends, who, otherwise would not have noticed me — gave me an honored seat at the yearly feasts, and se- cured the loudest and heartiest welcome of them all at the Christmas dance. The Christinas dance ! Oh, ye pleasure-seeking sons and daughters of idleness, who move with measured step, listless and snail-like, through the slow-winding cotillon, if ye wish to look


upon the celerity, if not the " poetry of motion" — upon genuine happiness, rampant and unrestrained — go down to Louisiana, and see the slaves dancing in the starlight of a Christmas night.

On that particular Christmas I have now in my mind, a description whereof will serve as a descrip- tion of the day generally, Miss Lively and Mr. Sam, the first belonging to Stewart, the latter to Roberts, started the ball. It was well known that Sam cher- ished an ardent passion for Lively, as also did one of Marshall's and another of Carey's boys ; for Lively was lively indeed, and a heart-breaking coquette with- al. It was a victory for Sam Roberts, when, rising from the repast, she gave him her hand for the f rat " figu' e" in preference to either of his rivals. T'ley were somewhat crest-fallen, and, shaking their h ,ads angrily, rather intimated they would like to pitcl into Mr. Sam and hurt him badly. But not an emotion of wrath ruffled the placid bosom of Samuel, as his legs flew like drum-sticks down the outside and up the middle, by the side of his bewitching partner. The whole company cheered them vociferously, and, excited with the applause, they continued " tearing down" after all the others had become exhausted and halted a moment to recover breath. But Sam's su- perhuman exertions overcame him finally, leaving Lively alone, yet whirling like a top. Thereupon one of Sam's rivals, Pete Marshall, dashed in, and, with might and main, leaped and shuffled and threw him- self into every conceivable shape, as if determined to


show Miss Lively and all the world that Sam Roberts was of no account.

Pete's affection, however, was greater than his dis- cretion. Such violent exercise took the breath out of him directly, and he dropped like an empty bag. Then was the time for Harry Carey to try his hand ; but Lively also soon out- winded him, amidst hurrahs and shouts, fully sustaining her well-earned reputation of being the " fastest gal" on the bayou.

One " set" off, another takes its place, he or she re- maining longest on the floor receiving the most up- roarious commendation, and so the dancing continues until broad daylight. It does not cease with the sound of the fiddle, but in that case they set up a mu- sic peculiar to themselves. This is called " patting," accompanied with one of those unmeaning songs, composed rather for its adaptation to a certain tune or measure, than for the purpose of expressing any distinct idea. The patting is performed by striking the hands on the knees, then striking the hands to- gether, then striking the right shoulder with one hand, the left with the other — all the while keeping time with the feet, and singing, perhaps, this song :

" Harper's creek and roarin' ribber, Thar, my dear, we'll live forebber ; Den we'll go to de Ingin nation, All I want in dis creation, Is pretty little wife and big plantation.

Chorus, Up dat oak and down dat ribber,

Two overseers and one little nigger "


Or, if these words are not adapted to the tune called for, it may be that " Old Hog Eye" is — a rather sol- emn and startling specimen of versification, not, how- ever, to be appreciated unless heard at the South. It runneth as follows :

" Who's been here since I've been gone 1 Pretty little gal wid a josey on.

Hog Eye ! Old Hog Eye, And Hosey too !

Never see de like since I was born, Here come a little gal wid a josey on.

Hog Eye ! Old Hog Eye ! And Hosey too !"

Or, may be the following, perhaps, equally nonsen- sical, but full of melody, nevertheless, as it flows from the negro's mouth :

" Ebo Dick and Jurdan's Jo, Them two niggers stole my yo'.

Chorus. Hop Jim along, Walk Jim along, Talk Jim along," &c.

Old black Dan, as black as tar, He dam glad he was not dar.

Hop Jim along," &c.

During the remaining holidays succeeding Christ- mas, they are provided with passes, and permitted to go where they please within a limited distance, or they may remain and labor on the plantation, in


which case they are paid for it. It is very rarely, however, that the latter alternative is accepted. They may be seen at these times hurrying in all di- rections, as happy looking mortals as can be found on the face of the earth. They are different beings from what they are in the field ; the temporary re- laxation, the brief deliverance from fear, and from the lash, producing an entire metamorphosis in their appearance and demeanor. In visiting, riding, renew- ing old friendships, or, perchance, reviving some old attachment, or pursuing whatever pleasure may sug- gest itself, the time is occupied. Such is " southern life as it is," three days in the year, as I found it — ■ the other three hundred and sixty-two being days of weariness, and fear, and suffering, and unremit- ting labor.

(^Marriage is frequently contracted during the holi- days, if such an institution may be said to exist among them. The only ceremony required before entering into that " holy estate," is to obtain the con- sent of the respective owners. It is usually encour- aged by the masters of female slaves. Either party can have as many husbands or wives as the owner will permit, and either is at liberty to discard the other at pleasure. The law in relation to divorce, or to bigamy, and so forth, is not applicable to property, of course. If the wife does not belong on the same plantation with the husband, the latter is permitted to visit her on Saturday nights, if the distance is not too far. Uncle Abram's wife lived seven miles from


Epps', on Bayou Huff Power. He had permission to visit her once a fortnight, but he was growing old, as has been said, and truth to say, had latterly well nigh forgotten her. Uncle Abram had no time to spare from his meditations on General Jackson — connubial dalliance being well enough for the young and thoughtless, but unbecoming a grave and solemn phi- losopher like himself.

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