Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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I am indebted to Mr. Henry B. Northu/p and oth- ers for many of the particulars contained in this chapter.

The letter written by Bass, directed to Parker and Perry, and which was deposited in the post-office in Marksville on the 15th day of August, 1852, arrived at Saratoga in the early part of September. Some time previous to this, Anne had removed to Glens Palls, Warren county, where she had charge of the kitchen in Carpenter's Hotel. She kept house, how- ever, lodging with our children, and was only absent from them during such time as the discharge of her

duties in the hotel required.

M id


Messrs. Parker and Perry, on receipt of the letter, forwarded it immediately to Anne. On reading it the children were all excitement, and without delay hastened to the neighboring village of Sandy Hill, to consult Henry B. JNorthup, and obtain his advice and assistance in the matter.

Upon examination, that gentleman found among the statutes of the State an act providing for the re- covery of free citizens from slavery. It was passed May 14, 1840, and is entitled "An act more effectu- ally to protect the free citizens of this State from being kidnapped or reduced to slavery." It provides that it shall be the duty of the Governor, upon the re- ceipt of satisfactory information that any free citizen or inhabitant of this State, is wrongfully held in another State or Territory of the United States, upon the al- legation or pretence that such person is a slave, or by color of any usage or rule of law is deemed or taken to be a slave, to take such measures to procure the restoration of such person to liberty, as he shall deem necessary. And to that end, he is authorized to appoint and employ an agent, and directed to fur- nish him with such credentials and instructions as will be likely to accomplish the object of his appointment. It requires the agent so appointed to proceed to col- lect the proper proof to establish the right of such person to his freedom ; to perform such journeys, take such measures, institute such legal proceedings, &c, as may be necessary to return such person to this State, and charges all expenses incurred in carrying


the act into effect, upon 'moneys not otherwise ap- propriated in the treasury.*

It was necessary to establish two facts to the satis- faction of the Governor : First, that I was a free citi- zen of JSTew-York ; and secondly, that I was wrong- fully held in bondage. As to the first point, there was no difficulty, all the older inhabitants in the vi- cinity being ready to testify to it. The second point rested entirely upon the letter to Parker and Perry, written in an unknown hand, and upon the letter pen- ned on board the brig Orleans, which, unfortunately, had been mislaid or lost.

A memorial was prepared, directed to his excellen- cy, Governor Hunt, setting forth her marriage, my departure to "Washington city ; the receipt of the let- ters ; that I was a free citizen, and such other facts as were deemed important, and was signed and verified by Anne. Accompanying this memorial were sever- al affidavits of prominent citizens of Sandy Hill and Fort Edward, corroborating fully the statements it contained, and also a request of several well known gentlemen to the Governor, that Henry B. ISTorthup be appointed agent under the legislative act.

On reading the memorial and affidavits, his excel- lency took a lively interest in the matter, and on the 23d day of November, 1852, under the seal of the State, " constituted, appointed and employed Henry B. IsTorthup, Esq., an agent, with full power to effect" my restoration, and to take such measures as would

* See Appendix A.


be most likely to accomplish it, and instructing him to proceed to Louisiana with all convenient dispatch.*

The pressing nature of Mr. ISTorthup's professional and political engagements delayed his departure un- til December. On the fourteenth day of that month he left Sandy Hill, and proceeded to "Washington. The Hon. Pierre Soule, Senator in Congress from Lou- isiana, Hon. Mr. Conrad, Secretary of "War, and Judge Nelson, of the Supreme Court of the United States, upon hearing a statement of the facts, and ex- amining his commission, and certified copies of the memorial and affidavits, furnished him with open let- ters to gentlemen in Louisiana, strongly urging their assistance in accomplishing the object of his ap- pointment.

Senator Soule especially interested himself in the matter, insisting, in forcible language, that it was the duty and interest of every planter in his State to aid in restoring me to freedom, and trusted the sentiments of honor and justice in the bosom of every citizen of the commonwealth would enlist him at once in rny behalf. Having obtained these valuable letters, Mr. Kbrthup returned to Baltimore, and proceeded from thence to Pittsburgh. It was his original intention, under advice of friends at Washington, to go directly to New Orleans, and consult the authorities of that city. Providentially, however, on arriving at the mouth of Eed Piver, he changed his mind. Had he continued on, he would not have met with Bass, in

* See Appendix B.


which case the search for nie would probably have been fruitless.

Taking passage on the first steamer that arrived, he pursued his journey up Red River, a sluggish, winding stream, flowing through a vast region of primitive forests and impenetrable swamps, almost wholly destitute of inhabitants. About nine o'clock in the forenoon, January 1st, 1853, he left the steamboat at Marksville, and proceeded directly to Marksville Court House, a small village four miles in the interior.

From the fact that the letter to Messrs. Parker and Perry was post-marked at Marksville, it was supposed by him that I was in that place or its immediate vi- cinity. On reaching this town, he at once laid his business before the Hon. John P. "Waddill, a legal gentleman of distinction, and a man of fine genius and most noble impulses. After reading the letters and documents presented him, and listening to a rep- resentation of the, circumstances under which I had been carried away into captivity, Mr. Waddill at once proffered his services, and entered into the af- fair with great zeal and earnestness. He, in common with others of like elevated character, looked upon the kidnapper with abhorrence. The title of his fel- low parishioners and clients to the property which constituted the larger proportion of their wealth, not only depended upon the good faith in which slave sales were transacted, but he was a man in whose honorable heart emotions of indignation were aroused by such an instance of injustice.


Marksville, although occupying a prominent posi- tion, and standing out in impressive italics on the map of Louisiana, is, in fact, but a small and insig- nificant hamlet. Aside from the tavern, kept by a jolly and generous boniface, the court house, inhabi- ted by lawless cows and swine in the seasons of va- cation, and a high gallows, with its dissevered rope dangling in the air, there is little to attract the at- tention of the stranger. ^H^

Solomon ISTorthup was a name Mr. TVaddill flB never heard, but he was confident that if there was a slave bearing that appellation in Marksville or vi- cinity, his black boy Tom would know him. Tom was accordingly called, but in all his extensive cir- cle of acquaintances there was no such personage.

The letter to Parker and Perry was dated at Bayou Bceuf. At this place, therefore, the conclusion was, I must be sought. But here a difficulty suggested itself, of a very grave character indeed. Bayou Bceuf, at its nearest point, was twenty-three miles distant, and was the name applied to the section of country extending between fifty and a hundred miles, on both sides of that stream. Thousands and thousands of slaves resided upon its shores, the remarkable richness and fertility of the soil having attracted thither a great number of planters. The information in the letter was so vague and indefinite as to render it difficult to conclude upon any specific course of proceeding. It was finally determined, however, as the only plan that presented any prospect of success 3


that Northup and the brother of Waddill, a student in the office of the latter, should repair to the Bayou, and traveling up one side and down the other its whole length, inquire at each plantation for me. Mr. Waddill tendered the use of his carriage, and it was definitely arranged that they should start upon the excursion early Monday morning.

It will he seen at once that this course, in all prob- ability, would have resulted unsuccessfully. It would have been impossible for them to have gone into the fields and examine all the gangs at work. They were not aware that I was known only as Piatt ; and had they inquired of Epps himself, he would have stated truly that he knew nothing of Solomon TTorthup.

The arrangement being adopted, however, there was nothing further to be done until Sunday had elapsed. The conversation between" Messrs. Northup and "Waddill, in the course of the afternoon, turned upon !New-York politics. -"

"I can scarcely comprehend the nice distinc- tions and shades of political parties in your State," observed Mr. Waddill. " I read of soft-shells and hard-shells, hunkers and barnburners, woolly-heads and silver-grays, and am unable to understand the precise difference between them. Pray, what is it V

Mr. ISTorthup, re-filling his pipe, entered into quite an elaborate narrative of the origin of the various sections of parties, and concluded by saying there was another party in ISTew-York, known as free-soilers or


abolitionists. " Tou have seen none of those in this part of the country, I presume ?" Mr. Northup re- marked.

" .Never, but one," answered Waddill, laughingly. " We have one here in Marksville, an eccentric crea- ture, who preaches abolitionism as vehemently as any fanatic at the North. He is a generous, inoffensive man, but always maintaining the wrong side of an argument. It affords us a deal of amusement. He is an excellent mechanic, and almost indispensable in this community. He is a carpenter. His name is Bass."

Some further good-natured conversation was had at the expense of Bass' peculiarities, when "Waddill all at once fell into a reflective mood, and asked for the mysterious letter again.

'^Let me see — 1-e-t m-e s-e-e !" he repeated, thoughtfully to himself, running his eyes over the let- ter once more. " ' Bayou Bceuf, August 15.' August 15 — post-marked here. ' He that is writing for me — ' "Where did Bass work last summer?" he inquired, turning suddenly to his brother. His brother was unable to inform him, but rising, left the office, and soon returned with the intelligence that " Bass work- ed last summer somewhere on Bayou Bceuf."

" He is the man," 'bringing down his hand emphat- ically on the table,' "who can tell us all about Sol- omon ISTorthup," exclaimed Waddill.

Bass was immediately searched for, but could not be found. After some inquiry, it was ascertained he


was at the landing on Red River. Procuring a con- veyance, young TVaddill and ISTorthup were not long- in traversing the few miles to the latter place. On their arrival, Bass was found, just on the point of leav- ing, to be absent a fortnight or more. After an in- troduction, ISTorthup begged the privilege of speaking -. to him privately a moment. They walked together towards the river, when the following conversation ensued :

" Mr. Bass," said ISTorthup, " allow me to ask you if you were on Bayou Boeuf last August ? "

" Tes, sir, I was there in August," was the reply.

" Did you write a letter for a colored man at that place to some gentleman in Saratoga Springs ? "

" Excuse me, sir, if I say that is none of your busi= ness," answered Bass, stopping and looking his inter- rogator searchingly in the face.

" Perhaps I am rather hasty, Mr. Bass ; I beg your pardon ; but I have come from the State of ]STew-York to accomplish the purpose the writer of a letter dated-'- the 15th of August, post-marked at Marksville, had in view. Circumstances have led me to think that you are perhaps the man who wrote it. I am in search of Solomon ISTorthup. If you know him, I beg you to inform me frankly where he is, and I assure you the source of any information you may give me shall not be divulged, if you desire it not to be."

A long time Bass looked his new acquaintance steadily in the eyes, without opening his lips. He seemed to be doubting in his own mind if there was M*


not an attempt to practice some deception upon him. Finally he said, deliberately — ■

" I have done nothing to be ashamed of. I am the man who wrote the letter. If you have come to res- cue Solomon Northup, I am glad to see you."

" "When did you last see him, and where is he ? " Northup inquired.

" I last saw him Christmas, a week ago to-day. He is the slave of Edwin Epps, a planter on Bayou Boeuf, near Holmesville. He is not known as Solo- mon Northup ; he is called Piatt."

The secret was out — the mystery was unraveled. Through the thick, black cloud, amid whose dark and dismal shadows I had walked twelve years, broke the star that was to light me back to liberty. All mis- trust and hesitation were soon thrown aside, and the two men conversed long and freely upon the subject uppermost in their thoughts. Bass expressed the interest he had taken in my behalf — his intention of going north in the Spring, and declaring that he had resolved to accomplish my emancipation, if it were in his power. He described the commencement and progress of his acquaintance with me, and listened with eager curiosity to the account given him of my family, and the history of my early life. Before sep- arating, he drew a map of the bayou on a strip of paper with a piece of red chalk, showing the locality of Epps 5 plantation, and the road leading most directly to it.

Northup and his young companion returned to Marksville, where it was determined to commence


legal proceedings to test the question of my right to freedom. I was made plaintiff, Mr. ISTorthup acting as my guardian, and Edwin Epps defendant. The process to be issued was in the nature of replevin, di- rected to the sheriff of the parish, commanding him to take me into custody, and detain me until the de- cision of the court. By the time the papers were duly drawn up, it was twelve o'clock at night — too late to obtain the necessary signature of the Judge, who resi- ded some distance out of town. Further business was therefore suspended until Monday morning.

Everything, apparently, was moving along swim- mingly, until Sunday afternoon, when Waddill called at ISTorthup's room to express his apprehension of dif- ficulties they had not expected to encounter. Bass had become alarmed, and had placed his affairs in the hands of a person at the landing, communicating to him his intention of leaving the State. This per- son had betrayed the confidence reposed in him to a certain extent, and a rumor began to float about the town, that the stranger at the hotel, who had been observed in the company of lawyer Waddill, was after one of old Epps' slaves, over on the bayou. Epps was known at Marksville, having frequent occasion to visit that place during the session of the courts, and the fear entertained by Mr. Northup's adviser was, that intelligence would be conveyed to him in the night, giving him an opportunity of secreting me be- fore the arrival of the sheriff.

This apprehension had the effect of expediting mat-


ters considerably. The sheriff, who lived in one direc- tion from the village, was requested to hold himself in readiness immediately after midnight, while the Judge was informed he would be called upon at the same time. It is but justice to say, that the authori- ties at Marksville cheerfully rendered all the assist- ance in their power.

As soon after midnight as bail could be perfected, and the Judge's signature obtained, a carriage, con- taining Mr. Northup and the sheriff, driven by the landlord's son, rolled rapidly out of the village of Marksville, on the road towards Bayou Boeuf.

It was supposed that Epps would contest the issue involving my right to liberty, and it therefore sug- gested itself to Mr. JSTorthup, that the testimony of the sheriff, describing my first meeting with the for- mer, might perhaps become material on the trial. It was accordingly arranged during the ride, that, before I had an opportunity of speaking to Mr. Northup, the sheriff should propound to me cer- tain questions agreed upon, such as the number and names of my children, the name of my wife before marriage, of places I knew at the North, and so forth. If my answers corresponded with the statements giv- en him, the evidence must necessarily be considered conclusive.

At length, shortly after Epps had left the field, with the consoling assurance that he would soon return and warm us, as was stated in the conclusion of the pre- ceding chapter, they came in sight of the plantation,


and discovered us at work. Alighting from the car- riage, and directing the driver to proceed to the great house, with instructions not to mention to any one the object of their errand until they met again, JSTorth- up and the sheriff turned from the highway, and came towards us across the cotton field. "We observed them, on looking up at the carriage — one several rods in advance of the other. It was a singular and unusual thing to see white men approaching us in that man- ner, and especially at that early hour in the morning', and Uncle Abram and Patsey made some remarks, expressive of their astonishment. Walking up to Bob, the sheriff inquired :

" Where's the boy they call Piatt ? "

" Thar he is, massa," answered Bob, pointing to me, and twitching off his hat.

I wondered to myself what business he could pos- sibly have with me, and turning round, gazed at him until he had approached within a step. During my long residence on the bayou, I had become familiar with the face of every planter within many miles ; but this man was an utter stranger — certainly I had never seen him before.

" Your name is Piatt, is it ? " he asked.

" Yes, master," I responded.

Pointing towards Northup, standing a few rods dis- tant, he demanded — " Do you know that man ? "

I looked in the direction indicated, and as my eyes rested on his countenance, a world of images thronged my brain ; a multitude of well-known faces — Anne's,


and the dear children's, and my old dead father's ; all the scenes and associations of childhood and youth ; all the friends of other and happier days, appeared and disappeared, flitting and floating like dissolving shadows before the vision of my imagination, until at last the perfect memory of the man recurred to me, and throwing up my hands towards Heaven, I ex- claimed, in a voice louder than I could utter in a less exciting moment —

" Henry B. Mrthup ! Thank God — thank God ! "

In an instant I comprehended the nature of his busi- ness, and felt that the hour of my deliverance was at hand. I started towards him, but the sheriff stepped before me.

"Stop a moment," said he ; "have you any other name than Piatt ? "

" Solomon Northup is my name, master," I replied.

" Have you a family 2 " he inquired.

" I had a wife and three children."

" What were your children's names ? "

" Elizabeth, Margaret and Alonzo."

" And your wife's name before her marriage % "

u Anne Hampton."

" "Who married you ? "

" Timothy Eddy, of Fort Edward."

" Where does that gentleman live ? " again pointing to Xorthup, who remained standing in the same place where I had first recognized him.

" He lives in Sandy Hill, Washington county, !New York," was the reply.


He was proceeding to ask further questions, but I pushed past him, unable longer to restrain myself. I seized my old acquaintance by both hands. I could not speak, I could not refrain from tears.

" Sol," he said at length, " I'm glad to see you."

I essayed to make some answer, but emotion choked all utterance, and I was silent. The slaves, utterly confounded, stood gazing upon the scene, their open mouths and rolling eyes indicating the utmost wonder and astonishment. For ten years I had dwelt among them, in the field and in the cabin, borne the same hardships, partaken the same fare, mingled my griefs with theirs, participated in the same scanty joys ; nevertheless, not until this hour, the last I was to re- main among them, had the remotest suspicion of my true name, or the slightest knowledge of my real his- tory, been entertained by any one of them.

~Not a word was spoken for several minutes, during which time I clung fast to Northup, looking up into his face, fearful I should awake and find it all a dream.

" Throw down that sack," Northup added, finally ; " your cotton-picking days are over. Come with us to the man you live with."

I obeyed him, and walking between him and the sheriff, we moved towards the great house. It was not until we had proceeded some distance that I had recovered my voice sufficiently to ask if my family were all living. He informed me he had seen Anne, Margaret and Elizabeth but a short time previously ;


that Alonzo was also living, and all were well. My mother, however, I could never see again. As I be- gan to recover in some measure from the sudden and great excitement which so overwhelmed me, I grew faint and weak, insomuch it was with difficulty I could walk. The sheriff took hold of my arm and assisted me, or I think I should have fallen. As we entered the yard, Epps stood by the gate, conversing with the driver. That young man, faithful to his instructions, was entirely unable to give him the least information in answer to his repeated inquiries of what was going on. By the time we reached him he was almost as much amazed and puzzled as Bob or Uncle Abram. Shaking hands with the sheriff, and receiving an introduction to Mr. Northup, he invited them into the house, ordering me, at the same time, to bring in some wood. It was some time before I succeeded in cutting an armful, having, somehow, unaccountably, lost the power of wielding the axe with any manner of precision. When I entered with it at last, the table was strewn with papers, from one of which Korthup was reading. I was probably longer than necessity required, in placing the sticks upon the fire, being particular as to the exact position of each indi- vidual one of them. I heard the words, " the said Solomon ISTorthup," and " the deponent further says," and " free citizen of New- York," repeated frequently, and from these expressions understood that the secret I had so long retained from Master and Mistress Epps, was finally developing. I lingered as long as pru-

^- ~ ^. ovff. J



dence permitted, and was about leaving the room, when Epps inquired,

" Piatt, do you know this gentleman ? "

" Yes, master," I replied, " I have known him as long as I can remember."

" Where does he live ? "

" He lives in Eew-York."

" Did you ever live there ? "

" Yes, master — born and bred there."

" You was free, then. Now you d d nigger,"

he exclaimed, " why did you not tell me that when I bought you % "

" Master Epps," I answered, in a somewhat differ- ent tone than the one in which I had been accustomed to address him — " Master Epps, you did not take the trouble to ask me ; besides, I told one of my owners — the man that kidnapped me — that I was free, and was whipped almost to death for it."

" It seems there has been a letter written for you by somebody. Now, who is it ? " he demanded, authori- tatively. I made no reply.

" I say, who wrote that letter ? " he demanded again.

" Perhaps I wrote it myself," I said.

" You haven't been to Marksville post-office and hack before light, I know."

He insisted upon my informing him, and I insisted I would not. He made many vehement threats against the man, whoever he might be, and intimated the bloody and savage vengeance he would wreak upon



him, when he found him out. His whole manner and language exhibited a feeling of anger towards the unknown person who had written for me, and of fret- fulness at the idea of losing so much property. Ad- dressing Mr. Korthup, he swore if he had only had an hour's notice of his coming, he would have saved him the trouble of taking me back to New- York ; that he would have run me into the swamp, or some other place out of the way, where all the sheriffs on earth couldn't have found me.

I walked out into the yard, and was entering the kitchen door, when something struck me in the back. Aunt Phebe, emerging from the back door of the great house with a pan of potatoes, had thrown one of them with unnecessary violence, thereby giving me to understand that she wished to speak to me a moment confidentially. Running up to me, she whis- pered in my ear with great earnestness,

" Lor a' mity, Piatt ! what d'ye think ? Dem two men come after ye. Heard 'em tell massa you free — got wife and tree children back thar whar you come from. Goin' wid 'em? Fool if ye don't — wish I could go," and Aunt Phebe ran on in this manner at a rapid rate.

Presently Mistress Epps made her appearance in the kitchen. She said many things to me, and won- dered why I had not told her who I was. She ex- pressed her regret, complimenting me by saying she had rather lose any other servant on the plantation, Had Patsey that day stood in my place, the measure


of my mistress' joy would have overflowed. !Now there was no one left who could mend a chair or a piece of furniture — no one who was of any use about the house — no one who could play for her on the vio- lin — and Mistress Epps was actually affected to tears.

Epps had called to Bob to bring up his saddle horse. The other slaves, also, overcoming their fear of the penalty, had left their work and come to the yard. They were standing behind the cabins, out of sight of Epps. They beckoned me to come to them, and with all the eagerness of curiosity, excited to the highest pitch, conversed with and questioned me.. If I could repeat the exact words they uttered, with the same emphasis — if I could paint their several attitudes, and the expression of their countenances — it would be indeed an interesting picture. In their estimation, I had suddenly arisen to an immeasurable height — had become a being of immense importance.

The legal papers having been served, and arrange- ments made with Epps to meet them the next day at Marksville, ISTorthup and the sheriff entered the carriage to return to the latter place. As I was about mounting to the driver's seat, the sheriff said I ought to bid Mr. and Mrs. Epps good bye. I ran back to the piazza where they were standing, and taking off my hat, said,

" Good-bye, missis."

" Good-bye, Piatt," said Mrs. Epps, kindly.

" Good-bye, master."

" Ah ! you d — d nigger," muttered Epps, in a surly,


malicious tone of voice, " you needn't feel so cussed tickled — you ain't gone yet — I'll see about this busi- ness at Marksville to-morrow."

I was only a " niggei^ and knew my place, but felt as strongly as if I bad been a white man, that it would have been an inward comfort, had I dared to have given him a parting kick. On my way back to the carriage, Patsey ran from behind a cabin and threw her arms about my neck.

" Oh ! Piatt," she cried, tears streaming down her face, "you're goin' to be free — you're goin' way off yonder where we'll neber see ye any more. You've saved me a good many whippins, Piatt ; I'm glad you're goin' to be free — but oh! de Lord, de Lord! what'll become of me ?"

I disengaged myself from her, and entered the carriage. The driver cracked his whip and away we rolled. I looked back and saw Patsey, with drooping head, half reclining on the ground ; Mrs. Epps was on the piazza ; Uncle Abrarn, and Bob, and Wiley, and Aunt Phebe stood by the gate, gazing after me. I waved my hand, but the carriage turned a bend of the bayou, hiding them from my eyes forever.

"We stopped a moment at Carey's sugar house, where a great number of slaves were at work, such an establishment being a curiosity to a Northern man. Epps dashed by us on horseback at full speed — on the way, as we learned next day, to the " Pine Woods," to see William Ford, who had brought me into the country.


Tuesday, the fourth of January, Epps and his coun- sel, the Hon. H. Taylor, ISTorthup, Waddill, the Judge and sheriff of Avoyelles, and myself, met in a room in the village of Marksville. Mr. Northup stated the facts in regard to me, and presented his commission, and the affidavits accompanying it. The sheriff de- scribed the scene in the cotton field. I was also interrogated at great length. Finally, Mr. Taylor assured his client that he was satisfied, and that liti- gation would not only be expensive, but utterly use- less. In accordance with his advice, a paper was drawn up and signed by the proper parties, wherein Epps acknowledged he was satisfied of my right to freedom, and formally surrendered me to the authori- ties of New- York. It was also stipulated that it be entered of record in the recorder's office of Avoy- elles.*

Mi*. Northup and myself immediately hastened to the landing, and taking passage on the first steamer that arrived, were soon floating down Red River, up which, with such desponding thoughts, I had been borne twelve years before.

* See Appendix 0.

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