Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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One morning, towards the latter part of the month of March, 18-11, having at that time no particular business to engage my attention, I was walking about the village of Saratoga Springs, thinking to myself where I might obtain some present employment, un- til the busy season should arrive. Anne, as was her usual custom, had gone over to Sandy Hill, a dis- tance of some twenty miles, to take charge of the cu- linary department at Sherrill's Coffee House, during the session of the court. Elizabeth, I think, had ac- companied her. Margaret and Alonzo were with their aunt at Saratoga.

On the corner of Congress street and Broadway, near the tavern, then, and for aught I know to the contrary, still kept by Mr. Moon, I was met by two gentlemen of respectable appearance, both of whom were entirely unknown to me. I have the impres-


sion that they were introduced to me by some one of my acquaintances, but who, I hare in vain endeavor- ed to recall, .with the remark that I was an expert player on the violin, '

At any rate, they immediately entered into conver- sation on that subject, making numerous inquiries touching my proficiency in that respect. My respon- ses being to alL appearances satisfactory, they propos- ed to engage my services for a short period, stating, at the same time, I was just such a person as their business required. Their names, as they afterwards gave them to me, were Merrill Brown and Abram Hamilton, though whether these were their true ap- pellations, I have strong reasons to doubt. -The for- mer was a man apparently forty years of age, some- what short and thick-set, with a countenance indica- ting shrewdness and intelligence. Tie wore' a black frock coat and black hat, and said he resided either at Rochester or at Syracuse. The latter was a young man of fair complexion and light eyes, and, I should judge, had not passed the age of twenty -five. He was tall and slender, dressed in a snuff-colored coat, with glossy hat, and vest of elegant pattern. His whole apparel was in the extreme of fashion. His appearance was somewhat effeminate, but prepossess- ing, and there was about him an easy air, that showed he had mingled with the world. They were connect- ed, as they informed me, with a circus company, then in the city of Washington ; that they were on their


way thither to rejoin it, having left it for a short time to make an excursion northward, for the purpose of seeing the country, and were paying their expenses by an occasional exhibition. They also remarked that they had found much difficulty in procuring mu- sic for their entertainments, and that if I would ac- company them as far as New- York, they would give me one dollar for each day's services, and three dol- lars in addition for every night I played at their per- formances, besides sufficient to pay the expenses of my return from ISTew-York to Saratoga.

I at once accepted the tempting offer, both for the reward it promised, and from a desire to visit the metropolis. They were anxious to leave immediately. Thinking my absence would be brief, I did not deem it necessary to write to Anne whither I had gone ; in fact supposing that my return, perhaps, would be as soon as hers. So taking a change of linen and my violin, I was ready to depart. The carriage was brought round — a covered one, drawn by a pair of noble bays, altogether forming an elegant establish- ment. Their baggage, consisting of three large trunks, was fastened on the rack, and mounting to the driver's seat, while they took their places in the rear, I drove away from Saratoga on the road to Albany, elated with my new position, and happy as I had ever been, on any day in alt my life.

We passed through Ballston, and striking the ridge road, as it is called, if my memory correctly serves


me, followed it direct to Albany. "We reached that city before dark, and stopped at a hotel southward from the Museum.

This night I had an opportunity of witnessing one of their performances — the only one, during the whole period I was with them. Hamilton was stationed at the door ; I formed the orchestra, while Brown pro- vided the entertainment. It consisted in throwing balls, dancing on the rope, frying pancakes in a hat, causing invisible pigs to squeal, and other like feats of ventriloquism and legerdemain. The audience was extraordinarily sparse, and not of the selectest character at that, and Hamilton's report of the pro- ceeds presented but a " beggarly account of empty boxes."

Early next morning we renewed our journey. The burden of their conversation now was the expression of an anxiety to reach the circus without delay. They hurried forward, without again stopping to ex- hibit, and in due course of time, we reached Xew- York, taking lodgings at a house on the west side of the city, in a street running from Broadway to the river. I supposed my journey was at an end, and expected in a day or two at least, to return to my friends and family at Saratoga. Brown and Hamil- ton, however, began to importune me to continue with them to Washington. They alleged that immediately on their arrival, now that the summer season was ap- proaching, the circus would set out for the north. They promised me a situation and high wages if I


would accompany them. Largely did they expatiate on the advantages that would result to me, and such were the flattering representations they made, that I finally concluded to accept the offer.

The next morning they suggested that, inasmuch as we were about entering a slave State, it would be well, before leaving New- York, to procure free pa- pers. The idea struck me as a prudent one, though I think it would scarcely have occurred to me, had they not proposed it. We proceeded at once to what I un- derstood to be the Custom House. They made oath to certain facts showing I was a free man. A paper was drawn up and handed us, with the direction to take it to the clerk's office. We did so, and the clerk having added something to it, for which he was paid six shil- lings, we returned again to the Custom House. Some further formalities were gone through with before it was completed, when, paying the officer two dollars, I placed the papers in my pocket, and started with my two friends to our hotel. I thought at the time, I must confess, that the papers were scarcely worth the cost of obtaining them — the apprehension of danger to my personal safety never having suggested itself to me in the remotest manner. . The clerk, to whom we were directed, I remember, made a memorandum in a large book, which, I presume, is in the office yet. A reference to the entries during the latter part of March, or first of April, 1841, I have no doubt will satisfy the incredulous, at least so far as this par- ticular transaction is concerned.


"With the evidence of freedom in my possession, the next day after onr arrival in New- York, we crossed the ferry to Jersey City, and took the road to Phila- delphia. Here we remained one night, continuing our journey towards Baltimore early in the morning. In due time, we arrived in the latter city, and stopped at a hotel near the railroad depot, either kept by a Mr. Rathbone, or known as the Rathbone House. All the way from New- York, their anxiety to reach the circus seemed to grow more and more intense. "We left the carriage at Baltimore, and entering the cars, proceeded to "Washington, at which place we arrived just at nightfall, the evening previous to the funeral of General Harrison, and stopped at Gadsby's Hotel, on Pennsylvania Avenue.

After supper they called me to their apartments, and paid me forty-three dollars, a sum greater than my wages amounted to, which act of generosity was in consequence, they said, of their not having exhib- ited as often as they had given me to anticipate, du- ring our trip from Saratoga. They moreover inform- ed me that it had been the intention of the circus company to leave Washington the next morning, but that on account of the funeral, they had concluded to remain another day. They were then, as they had been from the time of our first meeting, extremely kind. No opportunity was omitted of addressing me in the language of approbation ; while, on the other hand,

I was certainly much prepossessed in their favor. I


gave them my confidence without reserve, and would freely have trusted them to almost any extent, Their constant conversation and manner towards me — their foresight in suggesting the idea of free papers, and a hundred other little acts, unnecessary to be repeated — ■ all indicated that they were friends indeed, sincerely solicitous for my welfare. I know not but they were. I know not but they were innocent of the great wick- edness of which I now believe them guilty. Whether they were accessory to my misfortunes — subtle and inhuman monsters in the shape of men — designedly luring me away from home and family, and liberty, for the sake of gold — those who read these pages will have the same means of determining as myself. If they were innocent, my sudden disappearance must have been unaccountable indeed ; but revolv- ing in my mind all the attending circumstances, I never yet could indulge, towards them, so charitable a supposition.

After receiving the money from them, of which they appeared to have an abundance, they advised me not to go into the streets that night, inasmuch as I was unacquainted with the customs of the city. Promising to remember their advice, I left them to- gether, and soon after was shown by a colored ser- vant to a sleeping room in the back part of the hotel, on the ground floor. I laid down to rest, thinking of home and wife, and children, and the long distance that stretched between us, until I fell asleep. But


no good angel of pity came to my bedside, bidding me to fly — no voice of mercy forewarned me in my dreams of the trials that were just at hand.

The next day there was a great pageant in Wash- ington. The roar of cannon and the tolling of bells filled the air, while many houses were shrouded with crape, and the streets were black with people. As the day advanced, the procession made its appear- ance, coming slowly through the Avenue, carriage after carriage, in long succession, while thousands upon thousands followed on foot — all moving to the sound of melancholy music. They were bearing the dead body of Harrison to the grave.

From early in the morning, I was constantly in the company of Hamilton and Bi'own. They were the only persons I knew in Washington. We stood to- gether as the funeral pomp passed by. I remember distinctly how the window glass would break and rattle to the ground, after each report of the cannon they were firing in the burial ground. We went to the Capitol, and walked a long time about the grounds. In the afternoon, they strolled towards the Presi- dent's House, all the time keeping me near to them, and pointing out various places of interest. As yet, I had seen nothing of the circus. In fact, I had thought of it but little, if at all, amidst the excite- ment of the day.

My friends, several times during the afternoon, en- tered drinking saloons, and called for liquor. They were by no means in the habit, however, so far as I


knew them, of indulging to excess. On these occa- sions, after serving themselves, they would pour out a glass and hand it to me. I did not become intoxi- cated, as may be inferred from what subsequently occurred. Towards evening, and soon after parta- king of one of these potations, I began to experience most unpleasant sensations. I felt extremely ill. My head commenced aching — a dull, heavy pain, inex- pressibly disagreeable. At the supper table, I was without appetite ; the sight and flavor of food was nauseous. About dark the same servant conducted me to the room I had occupied the previous night. Brown and Hamilton advised me to retire, commise- rating me kindly, and expressing hopes that I would be better in the morning. Divesting myself of coat and boots merely, I threw myself upon the bed. It was impossible to sleep. The pain in my head continued to increase, until it became almost unbearable. In a short time I became thirsty. My lips were parched. I could think of nothing but water — of lakes and flowing rivers, of brooks where I had stooped to drink, and of the dripping bucket, rising with its cool and overflowing nectar, from the bottom of the well. Towards midnight, as near as I could judge, I arose, unable longer to bear such intensity of thirst. I was a stranger in the house, and knew nothing of its apartments. There was no one up, as I could observe. Groping about at random, I knew not where, I found the way at last to a kitchen in the basement. Two or three colored servants were mo vino; through it, one


of whom, a woman, gave me two glasses of water. It afforded momentary relief, but by the time I had reached my room again, the same burning desire of drink, the same tormenting thirst, had again returned. It was even more torturing than before, as was also the wild pain in my head, if such a thing could be. I was in sore distress — in most excruciating agony ! I seemed to stand on the brink of madness ! The memory of that night of horrible suffering will fol- low me to the grave.

In the course of an hour or more after my return from the kitchen, I was conscious of some one enter- ing my room. There seemed to be several — a ming- ling of various voices, — but how many, or who they were, I cannot tell. Whether Brown and Hamil- ton were among them, is a mere matter of conjecture. I only remember, with any degree of distinctness, that' I was told it was necessary to go to a physician and procure medicine, and that pulling on my boots, without coat or hat, I followed them through a long passage-way, or alley, into the open street. It ran out at right angles from Pennsylvania Avenue. On the opposite side there was alight burning in a win- dow. My impression is there were then three per- sons with me, but it is altogether indefinite and vague, and like the memory of a painful dream. Going towards the light, which I imagined proceed- ed from a physician's office, and which seemed to re- cede as I advanced, is the last glimmering recollec- tion I can now recall. From that moment I was


insensible. How long I remained in that condition — whether only that night, or many days and nights — ■ I do not know ; but when consciousness returned, I found myself alone, in utter darkness, and in chains. The pain in my head had subsided in a measure, but I was -very faint and weak. I was sitting upon a low bench, made of rough boards, and without coat or hat. I was hand-cuffed. Around my ankles also were a pair of heavy fetters. One end of a chain was fastened to a large ring in the floor, the other to the fetters on my ankles. I tried in vain to stand upon my feet. Waking from such a painful trance, it was some time before I could collect my thoughts. Where was I? What was the meaning of these chains ? Where were Brown and Hamilton ? What had I done to deserve imprisonment in such a dun- geon ? I could not comprehend. There was a blank of some indefinite period, preceding my awakening in that lonely place, the events of which the utmost stretch of memory was unable to recall. I listened intently for some sign or sound of life, but nothing broke the oppressive silence, save the clinking of my chains, whenever I chanced to move. I spoke aloud, but the sound of my voice startled me. I felt of my pockets, so far as the fetters would allow — far enough, indeed, to ascertain that I had not only been robbed of liberty, but that my money and free papers were also gone ! Then did the idea begin to break upon my mind, at first dim and confused, that I had been kidnapped. But that I thought was incredible.


There must have been some misapprehension — some unfortunate mistake. It could not be that a free citizen of Xew-York, who had wronged no man, nor violated any law, should be dealt with thus inhumanly. The more I contemplated my situation, however, the more I became confirmed in my suspicions. It was a desolate thought, indeed. I felt there was no trust or mercy in unfeeling man ; and commending myself to the Grod of the oppressed, bowed my head upon my fettered hands, and wept most bitterly.

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