The literal translation of this 1862 novel is Fathers and Children. Turgenev's young protagonists are Arkady and Bazarov, both caustic young men who reject authority and social conventions-- much to Arkady's father Nikolai's horror-- which unleashes a whole series of scandals, and misunderstandings. Readers will come to appreciate the meaning of nihilism. The novel is often studied in high school grades 9-10. Its sequel, Smoke is Turgenev's 1867 novel, a critique of social reforms undertaken by the charlatan "intellectuals" who would shape Russia's future.