Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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freeman's industry cleanliness and clothes exercising in the

show room the dance bob, the fiddler arrival of custom- ers slaves examined the old gentleman of new-orleans

sale of david, caroline and lethe parting of randall and

eliza small pox the hospital recovery and return to

freeman's slave pen the purchaser of eliza, harry and platt

— eliza's agony on parting from little emily.

The very amiable, pious-hearted Mr. Theophilus Freeman, partner or consignee of James II. Burch, and keeper of the slave pen in New-Orleans, was out among his animals early in the morning. With an occasional kick of the older men and women, and many a sharp crack of the whip about the ears of the younger slaves, it was not long before they were all astir, and wide awake. Mr. Theophilus Freeman bustled about in a very industrious manner, getting his property ready for the sales-room, intending, no doubt, to do that day a rousing business.

In the first place we were required to wash thorough- ly, and those with beards, to shave. TTe were then furnished with a new suit each, cheap, but clean. The men had hat, coat, shirt, pants and shoes ; the women frocks of calico, and handkerchiefs to bind about their heads. ~We were now conducted into a large room in the front part of the building to which

freeman's industry. 79

the yard was attached, in order to be properly trained, before the admission of customers. The men were arranged on one side of the room, the women on the other. The tallest was placed at the head of the row, then the next tallest, and so on in the order of their respective heights. Emily was at the foot of the line of women. Freeman charged ns to remem- ber our places ; exhorted us to appear smart and live- ly, — sometimes threatening, and again, holding out various inducements. During the day he exercised us in the art of " looking smart," and of moving to our places with exact precision.

After being fed, in the afternoon, we were again paraded and made to dance. Bob, a colored boy, who had some time belonged to Freeman, played on the violin. Standing near him, I made bold to in- quire if he could play the " Virginia Reel." He an- swered he could not, and asked me if I could play. Replying in the affirmative, he handed me the violin. I struck up a tune, and finished it. Freeman ordered me to continue playing, and seemed well pleased, telling Bob that I far excelled him — a remark that seemed to grieve my musical companion very much.

Next day many customers called to examine Free- man's " new lot." The latter gentleman was very loquacious, dwelling at much length upon our several good points and qualities. He would make us hold up our heads, walk briskly back and forth, while cus- tomers would feel of our hands and arms and bodies, turn lis about, ask us what we could do, make us open


our mouths and show our teeth, precisely as a jockey examines a horse which he is about to barter for or purchase. Sometimes a man or woman was taken back to the small house in the yard, stripped, and in- spected more minutely. Scars upon a slave's back were considered evidence of a rebellious or unruly spirit, and hurt his sale.

One old gentleman, who said he wanted a coach- man, appeared to take a fancy to me. From his con- versation with Burch, I learned he was a resident in the city. I very much desired that he would buy me, because I conceived it would not be difficult to make rny escape from [New-Orleans on some northern vessel. Freeman asked him fifteen hundred dollars for me. The old gentleman insisted it was too much, as times were very hard. Freeman, however, declared that I was sound and healthy, of a good constitution, and intelligent. He made it a point to enlarge upon my musical attainments. The old gentleman argued quite adroitly that there was nothing extraordinary about the nigger, and finally, to my regret, went out, saying he would call again. During the day, how- ever, a number of sales were made. David and Car- oline were purchased together by a Natchez planter. They left us, grinning broadly, and in the most happy state of mind, caused by the fact of their not being sep- arated. Lethe was sold to a planter of Baton Rouge, her eyes flashing with anger as she was led away.

The same man also purchased Randall. The little fellow was made to jump, and run across the floor,


and perform many other feats, exhibiting his activity and condition. All the time the trade was going on, Eliza was crying aloud, and wringing her hands. She besought the man not to buy him, unless he also bought herself and Emily. She promised, in that case, to be the most faithful slave that ever lived. The man answered that he could not afford it, and then Eliza burst into a paroxysm of grief, weeping plain- tively. Freeman turned round to her, savagely, with his whip in his uplifted hand, ordering her to stop her noise, or he would flog her. He would not have such work — such snivelling; and unless she ceased that minute, he would take her to the yard and give her a hundred lashes. Yes, he would take the nonsense out of her pretty quick — if he didn't, might he be d — d. Eliza shrunk before him, and tried to wipe away kei tears, but it was all in vain. She wanted to be with her children, she said, the little time she had to live. All the frowns and threats of Freeman, could not wholly silence the afflicted mother. She kept on beg- ging and beseeching them, most piteously, not to sep- arate the three. Over and over ao;ain she told them how she loved her boy. A great many times she repeated her former promises — how very faithful and obedient she would be ; how hard she would labor day and night, to the last moment of her life, if he would only buy them all together. But it was of no avail ; the man could not afford it. The bargain was agreed upon, and Randall must go alone. Then Eli- za, ran to him ; embraced him passionately ; kissed


him again and again; told him to remember her — ■ all the while her tears falling in the boy's face like rain.

Freeman damned her, calling her a blubbering, bawling wench, and ordered her to go to her place, and behave herself, and be somebody. He swore he wouldn't stand such stuff but a little longer. He would soon give her something to cry about, if she was not mighty careful, and that she might depend upon.

The planter from Baton Rouge, with his new pur- chases, was ready to depart.

" Don't cry, mama. I will be a good boy. Don't cry," said Randall, looking back, as they passed out of the door.

"What has become of the lad, God knows. It was a mournful scene indeed. I w T ould have cried myself if I had dared.

That night, nearly all who came in on the brig Or- leans, were taken ill. They complained of violent pain in the head and back. Little Emily — a thing unusual with her — cried constantly. In the morn- ing a physician was called in, but was unable to de- termine the nature of our complaint. While examin- ing me, and asking questions touching my symptoms, I gave it as my opinion that it was an attack of small- pox — mentioning the fact of Robert's death as the reason of my belief. It might be so indeed, he thought, and he would send for the head physician of the hos- pital. Shortly, the head physician came — a small, light-haired man, whom they called Dr. Carr. He


pronounced it small-pox, whereupon there was much, alarm throughout the yard. Soon after Dr. Carr left, Eliza, Emmy, Harry and myself were put into a hack and driven to the hospital — a large white marble building, standing on the outskirts of the city. Har- ry and I were placed in a room in one of the upper stories. I became very sick. For three days I was entirely blind. While lying in this state one day, Bob came in, saying to Dr. Can* that Freeman had sent him over to inquire how we were getting on. Tell him, said the doctor, that Piatt is very bad, but that if he survives until nine o'clock, he may recover.

I expected to die. Though there was little in the prospect before me worth living for, the near approach of death appalled me. I thought I could have been resigned to yield up my life in the bosom of my family, but to expire in the midst of strangers, under such circumstances, was a bitter reflection.

There were a great number in the hospital, of both sexes, and of all ages. In the rear of the building coffins were manufactured. "When one died, the bell tolled — a signal to the undertaker to come and bear away the body to the potter's field. Many times, each day and night, the tolling bell sent forth its melan- choly voice, announcing another death. But my time had not yet come. The crisis having passed, I began to revive, and at the end of two weeks and two days, returned with Harry to the pen, bearing upon my face the effects of the malady, which to this day con- tinues to disfigure it. Eliza and Emily were also


brought back next day in a hack, and again were we paraded in the sales-room, for the inspection and ex- amination of purchasers. I still indulged the hope that the old gentleman in search of a coachman would call again, as he had promised, and purchase me. In that event I felt an abiding confidence that I would soon regain my liberty. Customer after customer entered, but the old gentleman never made his ap- pearance.

At length, one day, while we were in the yard, Freeman came out and ordered us to our places, in the great room. A gentleman was waiting for us as we entered, and inasmuch as he will be often men- tioned in the progress of this narrative, a description of his personal appearance, and my estimation of his character, at first sight, may not be out of place.

He was a man above the ordinary height, some- what bent and stooping forward. He was a good- looking man, and appeared to have reached about the middle age of life. There was nothing repulsive in his presence ; but on the other hand, there was some- thing cheerful and attractive in his face, and in his tone of voice. The finer elements were all kindly mingled in his breast, as any one could see. He moved about among us, asking many questions, as to what we could do, and what labor we had been ac- customed to ; if we thought we would like to live with him, and would be good boys if he would buy us, and other interrogatories of like character.

After some further inspection, and conversation

eliza's parting fkom emilt. 85

touching prices, he finally offered Freeman one thou- sand dollars for me, nine hundred for Harry, and sev- en hundred for Eliza. Whether the small-pox had depreciated our value, or from what cause Freeman had concluded to fall five hundred dollars from the price I was before held at, I cannot say. At any rate, after a little shrewd reflection, he announced his ac- ceptance of the offer.

As soon as Eliza heard it, she was in an agony again. By this time she had become haggard and hollow-eyed with sickness and with sorrow. It would be a relief if I could consistently pass over in silence the scene that now ensued. It recalls memories more mournful and affecting than any language can por- tray. I have seen mothers kissing for the last time the faces of their dead offspring ; I have seen them looking down into the grave, as the earth fell with a dull sound upon their coffins, hiding them from their eyes forever ; but never have I seen such an exhibi- tion of intense, unmeasured, and unbounded grief, as when Eliza was parted from her child. She broke from her place in the line of women, and rushing down where Emily was standing, caught her in her arms. The child, sensible of some impending danger, instinct- ively fastened her hands around her mother's neck, and nestled her little head upon her bosom. Free- man sternly ordered her to be quiet, but she did not heed him. He caught her by the arm and pulled her rudely, but she only clung the closer to the child. Then, with a volley of great oaths, he struck her such


a heartless blow, that she staggered backward, and was like to fall. Oh ! how piteously then did she be- seech and beg and pray that they might not be sepa- rated. Why could they not be purchased together ? Why not let her have one of her dear children ? " Mercy, mercy, master ! " she cried, falling on her knees. " Please, master, buy Emily. I can never work any if she is taken from me : I will die."

Freeman interfered again, but, disregarding him, she still plead most earnestly, telling how Randall had been taken from her — how she never would see him again, and now it was too bad — oh, God ! it was too bad, too cruel, to take her away from Emily — her pride — her only darling, that could not live, it was so young, without its mother !

Finally, after much more of supplication, the pur- chaser of Eliza stepped forward, evidently affected, and said to Freeman he would buy Emily, and asked him what her price was.

" What is her price f Buy her ?" was the respon- sive interrogatory of Theophilus Freeman. And in- stantly answering his own inquiry, he added, " I won't sell her. She's not for sale.

The man remarked he was not in need of one so young — that it would be of no profit to him, but since the mother was so fond of her, rather than see them separated, he would pay a reasonable price. But to this humane proposal Freeman was entirely deaf. He would not sell her then on any account whatever. There were heaps and piles of money to


be made of her, lie said, when she was a few years older. There were men enough in New-Orleans who would give five thousand dollars for such an extra, handsome, fancy piece as Emily would be, rather than not get her. lS"o, no, he would not sell her then. She was a beauty — a picture — a doll — ■ one of the regular bloods — none of your thick-lipped, bullet- headed, cotton-picking niggers — if she was might he be d— d.

When Eliza heard Freeman's determination not to part with Emily, she became absolutely frantic.

" I will not go without her. They shall not take her from me," she fairly shrieked, her shrieks com- mingling with the loud and angry voice of Freeman, commanding her to be silent.

Meantime Harry and myself had been to the yard and returned with our blankets, and were at the front door ready to leave. Our purchaser stood near us, gazing at Eliza with an expression indicative of re- gret at having bought her at the expense of so much sorrow. "We waited some time, when, finally, Free- man, out of patience, tore Emily from her mother by main force, the two clinging to each other with all their might.

" Don't leave me, mama — don't leave me," scream- ed the child, as its mother was pushed harshly for- ward ; " Don't leave me — come back, mama," she still cried, stretching forth her little arms imploringly. But she cried in vain. Out of the door and into the street we were quickly hurried. Still we could hear


her calling to her mother, " Comeback — don't leave me — come back, mama," until her infant voice grew faint and still more faint, and gradually died away, as distance intervened, and finally was wholly lost.

Eliza never after saw or heard of Emily or Randall. Day nor night, however, were they ever absent from her memory. In the cotton field, in the cabin, al- ways and everywhere, she was talking of them — often to them, as if they were actuall} r present. Only when absorbed in that illusion, or asleep, did she ever have a moment's comfort afterwards.

She was no common slave, as has been said. To a large share of natural intelligence which she possess- ed, was added a general knowledge and information on most subjects. She had enjoyed opportunities such as are afforded to very few of her oppressed class. She had been lifted up into the regions of a higher life. Freedom — freedom for herself and for her off- spring, for many years had been her cloud by day, her pillar of fire by night. In her pilgrimage through the wilderness of bondage, with eyes fixed upon that hope-inspiring beacon, she had at length ascended to " the top of Pisgah," and beheld " the land of prom- ise." In an unexpected moment she was utterly over- whelmed with disappointment and despair. The glo- rious vision of liberty faded from her sight as they led her away into captivity. ISTow " she weepeth sore in the night, and tears are on her cheeks : all her friends have dealt treacherously with her : they have become her enemies."

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