Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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With the exception of my trip to St. Mary's parish, and my absence during the cane-cutting seasons, I was constantly employed on the plantation of Master Epps. He was considered but a small planter, not having a sufficient number of hands to require the services of an overseer, acting in the latter capacity himself. Not able to increase his force, it was his custom to hire during the hurry of cotton-picking.

On larger estates, employing fifty or a hundred, or perhaps two hundred hands, an overseer is deemed indispensable. These gentlemen ride into the field on horseback, without an exception,to my knowledge, armed with pistols, bowie knife, whip, and accompa- nied by several dogs. They follow, equipped in this fashion, in rear of the slaves, keeping a sharp lookout


upon tliem all. The requisite qualifications JXL_an_ overseer are utter heartlessness, brutality and cruelty.. It is liis business to produce large crops, and if that is accomplished, no matter what amount of suffering it may have cost. The presence of the dogs are neces- sary to overhaul a fugitive who may take to his heels, as is sometimes the case, when faint or sick, he is un- able to maintin his row, and unable, also, to en- dure the whip. The pistols are reserved for any dan- gerous emergency, there having been instances when such weapons were necessary. Goaded into uncon- trollable madness, even the slave will sometimes turn upon his oppressor. The gallows were standing at Marksville last January, upon which one was execu- ted a year ago for killing his overseer. It occurred not many miles from Epps' plantation on Red River. The slave was given his task at splitting rails. In the course of the day the overseer sent him on an errand, which occupied so much time that it was not possible for him to perform the task. The next day lie was called to an account, but the loss of time oc- casioned by the errand was no excuse, and he was ordered to kneel and bare his back for the reception of the lash. They were in the woods alone — beyond the reach of sight or hearing. The boy submitted until maddened at such injustice, and insane with pain, he sprang to his feet, and seizing an axe, liter- ally chopped the overseer in pieces. He made no at- tempt whatever at concealment, but hastening to his master, related the whole affair, and declared himself


ready to expiate the wrong by the sacrifice of his life. He was led to the scaffold, and while the rope was around his neck, maintained an undismayed and fearless bearing, and with his last words justified the act.

Besides the overseer, there are drivers tinder him, the number being in proportion to the number of hands in the field. The drivers are black, who, in addition to the performance of their equal share of work, are compelled to do the whipping of .....their severalgangs. Whips hang around their necks, and if they fail to use them^thoroughly, are whipped themselves. They have a few privileges, however ; for example, in cane-cutting the hands are not allow- ed to sit down long enough to eat their dinners. Carts filled with corn cake, cooked at the kitchen, are driv- en into the field at noon. The cake is distributed by the drivers, and must be eaten with the least possible delay.

When the slave ceases to perspire, as he often does when taxed beyond his strength, he falls to the ground and becomes entirely helpless. It is then the duty of the driver to drag him into the shade of the stand- ing cotton or cane, or of a neighboring tree, where he dashes buckets of water upon him, and uses other means of bringing out perspiration again, when he is ordered to his place, and compelled to continue his labor.

At Huff Power, when I first came to Epps', Tom, one of Roberts' negroes, was driver. He was a burly J*


fellow, and severe in the extreme. After Epps' re- moval to Bayou Boeuf, that distinguished honor was conferred upon myself. Up to the tune of my de- parture I had to wear a whip about my neck in the field. If Epps was present, I dared not show any lenity, not having the Christian fortitude of a certain well-known Uncle Tom sufficiently to brave his wrath, by refusing to perform the office. In that way, only, I escaped the immediate martyrdom he suffered, and, withal, saved my companions much suffering, as it proved in the end. Epps, I soon found, whether actually in the field or not, had his eyes pretty gen- erally upon us. From the piazza, from behind some adjacent tree, or other concealed point of observation, he was perpetually on the watch. If one of us had been backward or idle through the day, we were apt to be told all about it on returning to the quarters, and as it was a matter of principle with him. to re- prove every offence of that kind that came within his knowledge, the offender not only was certain of re- ceiving a castigation for his tardiness, but I likewise was punished for permitting it.

If, on the other hand, he had seen me use the lash freely, the man was satisfied. " Practice makes per- fect," truly ; and during my eight years' experience as a driver, I learned to handle the whip with mar- velous dexterity and precision, throwing the lash ■within a hair's breadth of the back, the ear, the nose, without, however, touching either of them. If Epps was observed at a distance, or we had reason to ap-


prehend lie was sneaking somewhere in the vicinity, I would commence plying the lash vigorously, when, according to arrangement, they would squirm and screech as if in agony, although not one of them had in fact been even grazed. Patsey would take occa- sion, if he made his appearance presently, to mumble in his hearing some complaints that Piatt was lash- ing them the whole time, and Uncle Abram, with an appearance of honesty peculiar to himself, would de- clare roundly I had just whipped them worse than General Jackson whipped the enemy at New-Orleans, If Epps was not drunk, and in one of his beastly hu- mors, this was, in general, satisfactory. If he was, some one or more of us must suffer, as a matter of course. Sometimes his violence assumed a dangerous form, placing the lives of his human stock in jeop- ardy. On one occasion the drunken madman thought to amuse himself by cutting my throat.

He had been absent at Holmesville, in attendance at a shooting-match, and none of us were aware of his return. While hoeing by the side of Patsey, she ex- 1 claimed, in a low voice, suddenly, " Piatt, d'ye see old Hog-Jaw beckoning me to come to him ?"

Glancing sideways, I discovered him in the edge of the field, motioning and grimacing, as was his habit when half-intoxicated. Aware of his lewd intentions, Patsey began to cry. I whispered her not to look up, and to continue at her work, as if she had not ob- served him. Suspecting the truth of the matter, however, he soon staggered up to me in a gr8at rage.


" What did you say to Pats ?•" he demanded, with an oath. I made him some evasive ariswer, which only had the effect of increasing his violence.

" How long have you owned this plantation, say,

you d d nigger ?" he inquired, with a malicious

sneer, at the same time taking hold of my shirt col- Jar with one hand, and thrusting the other into his pocket. " ]STow I'll cut your black throat ; that's what I'll do," drawing his knife from his pocket as he said it. But with one hand he was unable to open it, until finally seizing the blade in his teeth, I saw he was about to succeed, and felt the necessity of escaping from him, for in his present reckless state, it was evident he was not joking, by any means. My shirt was open in front, and as I turned round quickly and sprang from him, while he still retained his gripe, it was stripped entirely from my back. There was no difiiculty now in eluding him. He would chase me until out of breath, then stop until it was recov- ered, swear, and renew the chase again. ISTow he would command me to come to him, now endeavor to coax me, but I was careful to keep at a respectful] distance. In this manner we made the circuit of the field several times, he making desperate plunges, and I always dodging them, more amused than frightened, well knowing that when his sober senses returned, he would laugh at his own drunken folly. At length I observed the mistress standing by the yard fence, watching our half-serious, half-comical manoeuvres. Shooting past him, I ran directly to her. Epps, on


discovering her, did not follow. He remained about, the field an hour or more, during which time I stood by the mistress, having related the particulars of what had taken place. Now, she was aroused again, denouncing her husband and Patsey about equally. Finally, Epps came towards the house, by this time nearly sober, walking demurely, with his hands be- hind his back, and attempting to look as innocent as a child.

As he approached, nevertheless, Mistress Epps be- gan to berate him roundly, heaping upon him many rather disrespectful epithets, and demanding for what reason he had attempted to cut my throat. Epps made wondrous strange of it all, and to my surprise, swore by all the saints in the calendar he had not spoken to me that day.

" Piatt, you lying nigger, have I?" was his brazen appeal to me.

It is not safe to contradict a master, even by the assertion of a truth. So I was silent, and when he en- tered the house I" returned to the field, and the affair was never after alluded to.

Shortly after this time a circumstance occurred that came nigh divulging the secret of my real name and history, which I had so long and carefully concealed, and upon which I was convinced depended my final escape. Soon after he purchased me, Epps asked me if I could write and read, and on being informed that I had received some instruction in those branches of education, he assured me, with emphasis, if he ever


caught Hie with a book, or with, pen and ink, he would give me a hundred lashes. He said he wanted me to understand that he bought " niggers" to work and not to educate. He never inquired a word of my past life, or from whence I came. The mistress, however, cross-examined me frequently about Washington, which she supposed was my native city, and more than once remarked that I did not talk nor act like the other " niggers," and she was sure I had seen more of the world than I admitted.

My great object always was to invent means of get- ting a letter secretly into the post-office, directed to some of my friends or family at the North. The diffi- culty of such an achievement cannot be comprehend- ed by one unacquainted with the severe restrictions imposed upon me. In the first place, I was deprived of pen, ink, and paper. In the second place, a slave cannot leave his plantation without a pass, nor will a post-master mail a letter for one without written in- structions from his owner. I was in slavery nine years, and always watchful and on the alert, before I met with the good fortune of obtaining a sheet of pa- per. "While Epps was in New-Orleans, one winter, disposing of his cotton, the mistress sent me to Holmes- ville, with an order for several articles, and among the rest a quantity of foolscap. I appropriated a sheet, concealing it in the cabin, under the board on which I slept.

After various experiments I succeeded in making ink, by boiling white maple bark, and with a feather



plucked from the wing of a duck, manufactured a pen. "When all were asleep in the cabin, by the light of the coals, lying upon my plank couch, I managed to complete a somewhat lengthy epistle. It was di- rected to an old acquaintance at Sandy Hill, stating my condition, and urging him to take measures to re- store me to liberty. This letter I kept a long time, contriving measures by which it could be safely de- posited in the post-office. At length, a low fellow, by the name of Armsby, hitherto a stranger, came into the neighb orKoocITseeking a situation as overseer. He applied to Epps, and was about the plantation for several days. He next went over to Shaw's, near by, and remained with him several weeks. Shaw was generally surrounded by such worthless characters, being himself noted as a gambler and unprincipled man. He had made a wife of his slave Charlotte, and a brood of young mulattoes were growing up in his house. Armsby became so much reduced at last, that he was compelled to labor with the slaves. A white man working in the field is a rare and unusual spectacle on Bayou Bceuf. I improved every oppor- tunity of cultivating his acquaintance privately, de- siring to obtain his confidence so far as to be willing to intrust the letter to his keeping. He visited Marks- ville repeatedly, he informed me, a town some twenty miles distant, and there, I proposed to myself, the let- ter should be mailed.

Carefully deliberating on the most proper manner of approaching him on the subject, I concluded final-


lj to ask him simply if he would deposit a letter for me in the Marksville post-office the next time he vis- ited that place, without disclosing to him that the let- ter was written, or any of the particulars it contained ; for I had fears that he might betray me, and knew that some inducement must be held out to him of a pecuniary nature, before it would be safe to confide in him. As late as one o'clock one night I stole noise- lessly from my cabin, and, crossing the field to Shaw's, found him sleeping on the piazza. I had but a few picayunes — the proceeds of my fiddling performan- ces, but all I had in the world I promised him if he would do me the favor required. I begged him not to expose me if he could not grant the request. He assured me, upon his honor, he would deposit it in the Marksville post-office, and that he would keep it an inviolable secret forever. Though the letter was in my pocket at the time, I dared not then deliver it to him, but stating I would have it written in a day or two, bade him good night, and returned to my cab- in. It was impossible for me to expel the suspicions I entertained, and all night I lay awake, revolving in my mind the safest course to pursue. I was willing to risk a great deal to accomplish my purpose, but should the letter by any means fall into the hands of Epps, it would be a death-blow to my aspirations. I was " perplexed in the extreme."

My suspicions were well-founded, as the sequel de- monstrated. The next day but one, while scraping cot- ton in the field, Epps seated himself on the line fence

epps' SUSPICIONS. 233

between Shaw's plantation and his own, in snch a po- sition as to overlook the scene of our labors. Pres- ently Armsby made his appearance, and, mounting the fence, took a seat beside him. They remained two or three hours, all of which time I was in an ag- ony of apprehension.

That night, while broiling my bacon, Epps entered the cabin with his rawhide in his hand.

" "Well, boy," said he, " I understand I've got a larned nigger, that writes letters, and tries to get white fellows to mail 'em. Wonder if you know who he is ?"

My worst fears were realized, and although it may not be considered entirely creditable, even under the circumstances, yet a resort to duplicity and downright falsehood was the only refuge that presented itself.

" Don't know nothing about it, Master Epps," I an- swered him, assuming an air of ignorance and sur- prise ; " Don't know nothing at all about it, sir."

" "Wan't you over to Shaw's night before last ?" he inquired.

" No, master," was the reply.

" Hav'nt you asked that fellow, Armsby, to mail a letter for you at Marksville ?"

" "Why, Lord, master, I never spoke three words to him in all my life. I don't know what you mean."

" Well," he continued, " Armsby told me to-day the devil was among my niggers ; that I had one that needed close watching or he would run away ; and when I axed him why, he said you come over to


Shaw's, and waked him up in the night, and wanted him to carry a letter to Marksville. What have you got to say to that, ha ?"

" All I've got to say, master," I replied, " is, there is no truth in it. How could I write a letter without any ink or paper ? There is nobody I want to write to, 'cause I haint got no friends living as I know of. That Armsby is a lying, drunken fellow, they say, and nobody believes him anyway. Ton know I always tell the truth, and that I never go off the plantation without a pass. ]STow, master, I can see what that Armsby is after, plain enough. Did'nt he want you to hire him for an overseer ?"

" Yes, he wanted me to hire him," answered Epps.

" That's it," said I, " he wants to make you believe we're all going to run away, and then he thinks you'll hire an overseer to watch us. He just made that sto- ry out of whole cloth, 'cause he wants to get a situa- tion. It's all a lie, master, you may depend on't."

Epps mused awhile, evidently impressed with the plausibility of my theory, and exclaimed,

"I'm d — d, Piatt, if I don't believe you tell the truth. He must take me for a soft, to think he can come it over me with them kind of yarns, musn't he ? Maybe he thinks he can fool me ; maybe he thinks I don't know nothing— can't take care of my own niggers, eh ! Soft soap old Epps, eh ! Ha, ha, ha ! D — n Arnisby! Set the dogs on him, Piatt," and with many other comments descriptive of Armsby's general character, and his capability of taking care of


his own business, and attending to his own " niggers," Master Epps left the cabin. As soon as he was gone I threw the letter in the fire, and, with a desponding and despairing heart, beheld the epistle which had cost me so much anxiety and thought, and which I fondly hoped would have been my forerunner to the land of freedom, writhe and shrivel on its bed of coals, and dissolve into smoke and ashes. Armsby, the treacherous wretch, was driven from Shaw's planta- tion not long subsequently, much to my relief, for I feared he might renew his conversation, and perhaps induce Epps to credit him.

I knew not now whither to look for deliverance. Hopes sprang up in my heart only to be crushed and blighted. The summer of my life was passing away ; I felt I was growing prematurely old ; that a few years more, and toil, and grief, and the poisonous mi- asmas of the swamps would accomplish their work upon me — would consign me to the grave's embrace, to moulder and be forgotten. Repelled, betrayed, cut off from the hope of succor, I could only prostrate myself upon the earth and groan in unutterable an- guish. The hope of rescue was the only light that cast a ray of comfort on my heart. That was now nickering, faint and low ; another breath of disap- pointment would extinguish it altogether, leaving me to grope in midnight darkness to the end of life.

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