Twelve Years a Slave

by Solomon Northup

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As the steamer glided on its way towards New- Orleans, perhaps I was not happy — perhaps there was no difficulty in restraining myself from dancing round the deck — perhaps I did not feel grateful to the man who had come so many hundred miles for me — perhaps I did not light his pipe, and wait and watch his word, and run at his slightest bidding. If I didn't — well, no matter.

"We tarried at New-Orleans two days. During that time I pointed out the locality of Freeman's slave pen, and the room in which Ford purchased me. We happened to meet Theophilus in the street, but I did not think it worth while to renew acquaintance with him. From respectable citizens we ascertained he had become a low, miserable rowdy — a broken-down, disreputable man.


"We also visited the recorder, Mr. Genois, to whom Senator Soule's letter was directed, and found him a man well deserving the wide and honorable reputa- tion that he bears. He very generously furnished us with a sort of legal pass, over his signature and seal of office, and as it contains the recorder's description of my personal appearance, it may not be amiss to in- sert it here. The following is a copy :

" State of Louisiana — City of New- Orleans : Eecorder's Office, Second District. " To all to whom these presents shall come : —

" This is to certify that Henry B. Northup, Esquire, of the county of Washington, New-York, has produced before me due evidence of the freedom of Solomon, a mulatto man, aged about forty-two years, five feet, seven inches and six lines, woolly hair, and chestnut eyes, who is a native born of the State of New-York. That the said Northup, being about bringing the said Solomon to his native place, through the southern routes, the civil authorities are requested to let the aforesaid color- ed man Solomon pass unmolested, he demeaning well and properly.

" Given under my hand and the seal of the city of New-Or leans this 7th January, 1853.

[l. s.] "TH. GENOIS, Eecorder."

On the 8th we came to Lake Pontchartrain, by rail- road, and, in due time, following the usual route, reached Charleston. After going on board the steam- boat, and paying our passage at this city, Mr. North- up was called upon by a custom-house officer to ex- plain why he had not registered his servant. He


replied that lie had no servant — that, as the agent of New- York, he was accompanying a free citizen of that State from slavery to freedom, and did not desire nor intend to make any registry whatever. I conceived from his conversation and manner, though I may per- haps be entirely mistaken, that no great pains would be taken to avoid whatever difficulty the Charleston officials might deem proper to create. At length, however, we were permitted to proceed, and, passing through Richmond, where I caught a glimpse of Goodin's pen, arrived in "Washington January 17th, 1853.

"We ascertained that both Burch and Radburn were still residing in that city. Immediately a complaint was entered with a police magistrate of Washington, against James H. Burch, for kidnapping and selling me into slavery. He was arrested upon a warrant issued by Justice Gocldard, and returned before Jus- tice Mansel, and held to bail in the sum of three thou- sand dollars. When first arrested, Burch was much excited, exhibiting the utmost fear and alarm, and be- fore reaching the justice's office on Louisiana Ave- nue, and before knowing the precise nature of the complaint, begged the police to permit him to consult Benjamin O. Shekels, a slave trader of seventeen years' standing, and his former partner. The latter became his bail.

At ten o'clock, the 18th of January, both parties appeared before the magistrate. Senator Chase, of Ohio, Hon. Orville Clark, of Sandy Hill, and Mr,


Northup acted as counsel for the prosecution, and Jo- seph H. Bradley for the defence.

Gen. Orville Clark was called and sworn as a wit- ness, and testified that he had known me from child- hood, and that I was a free man, as was my father be- fore me. Mr. ISTorthup then testified to the same, and proved the facts connected with his mission to Avoy- elles.

Ebenezer Radburn was then sworn for the prosecu- tion, and testified he was forty-eight years old ; that he was a resident of Washington, and had known Burch fourteen years ; that in 1841 he was keeper of Williams' slave pen ; that he remembered the fact of my confinement in the pen that year. At this point it was admitted by the defendant's counsel, that I had been placed in the pen by Burch in the spring of 1811, and hereupon the prosecution rested.

Benjamin O. Shekels was then offered as a witness by the prisoner. Benjamin is a large, coarse-featured man, and the reader may perhaps get a somewhat correct conception of him by reading the exact lan- guage he used in answer to the first question of de- fendant's lawyer. He was asked the place of his na- tivity, and his reply, uttered in a sort of rowdyish way, was in these very words —

" I was born in Ontario county, New-York, and weighed fourteen pounds /"

Benjamin was a prodigious baby ! He further tes- tified that he kept the Steamboat Hotel in Washing- ton in 1841, and saw me there in the spring of that N


year. lie was proceeding to state what lie had heard two men say, when Senator Chase raised a legal ob- jection, to wit, that the sayings of third persons, be- ing hearsay, was improper evidence. The objection was overruled by the Justice, and Shekels continued, stating that two men came to his hotel and represent- ed they had a colored man for sale ; that they had an interview with Burch ; that they stated they came from Georgia, but he did not remember the county ; that they gave a full history of the boy, saying he was a bricklayer, and pla} T ed on the violin ; that Burch remarked he would purchase if they could agree ; that they went out and brought the boy in, and that I was the same person. He further testified, with as much unconcern as if it was the truth, that I rep- presented I was born and bred in Georgia ; that one of the young men with me was my master ; that I exhibited a great deal of regret at parting with him, and he believed " got into tears !" — nevertheless, that I insisted my master had a right to sell me ; that he ought to sell me ; and the remarkable reason I gave was, according to Shekels, because he, my master, " had been gambling and on a spree !"

He continued, in these words, copied from the min- utes taken on the examination : " Burch interrogated the boy in the usual manner, told him if he purchas- ed him he should send him south. The boy said he had no objection, that in fact he would like to go south. Burch paid $650 for him, to my knowledge. I don't know what name was given him, but think it


was not Solomon. Did not know the name of either of the two men. They were in my tavern two or three hours, during which time the hoy played on the vio- lin. The bill of sale was signed in my bar-room. It was a printed Manic, filled up oy Burch. Before 1838 Burch was my partner. Our business was buying and selling slaves. After that time he was a partner of Theophilus Freeman, of JSTew-Orleans. Burch bought here — Freeman sold there !"

Shekels, before testifying, had heard my relation of the circumstances connected with the visit to "Wash- ington with Brown and Hamilton, and therefore, it was, undoubtedly, he spoke of " two men," and of my playing on the violin. Such was his fabrication, ut- terly untrue, and yet there was found in Washington a man who endeavored to corroborate him.

Benjamin A. Thorn testified he was at Shekels' in 1811, and saw a colored boy playing on a fiddle. " Shekels said he was for sale. Heard his master tell him he should sell him. The boy acknowledged to me he was a slave. I was not present when the money was paid. Will not swear positively this is the boy. The master came near shedding tears : 1 'think the boy . did! I have been engaged in the business of taking slaves south, off and on, for twenty years. When I can't do that I do something else."

I was then offered as a witness, but, objection be- ing made, the court decided my evidence inadmissible. It was rejected solely on the ground that I was a col-


ored man — the fact of my being a free citizen of !New-York not being disputed.

Shekels having testified there was a bill of sale ex ecuted, Burch was called upon by the prosecution to produce it, inasmuch as such a paper would corrobo- rate the testimony of Thorn and Shekels. The pris- oner's counsel saw the necessity of exhibiting it, or giving some reasonable explanation for its non-pro- duction. To effect the latter, Burch himself was offer- as a witness in his own behalf. It was contended by counsel for the people, that such testimony should not be allowed — that it was in contravention of every rule of evidence, and if permitted would defeat the ends of justice. His testimony, however, was receiv- ed by the court ! He made oath that such a bill of sale had been drawn up and signed, hut he had lost it, and did not know what had oecorne of it ! Thereup- on the magistrate was recpiested to dispatch a police officer to Burch's residence, with directions to bring his books, containing his bills of sales for the year 1841. The request was granted, and before any meas- ure could be taken to prevent it, the officer had ob- tained possession of the books, and brought them into court. The sales for the year 181:1 were found, and carefully examined, but no sale of myself, by any name, was discovered !

Upon this testimony the court held the fact to be established, that Burch came innocently and honestly by me, and accordingly he was discharged. .


An attempt was then made by Burch and his sat- ellites, to fasten upon me the charge that I had con- spired with the two white men to defraud him — with what success, appears in an extract taken from an ar- ticle in the New-York Times, published a day or two subsequent to the trial : " The counsel for the defend- ant had drawn up, before the defendant was dis- charged, an affidavit, signed by Burch, and had a warrant out against the colored man for a conspiracy with the two white men before referred to, to defraud Burch out of six hundred and twenty-five dollars. The warrant was served, and the colored man arrest- ed and brought before officer Goddard. Burch and his witnesses appeared in court, and EL B. ISTorthup appeared as counsel for the colored man, stating he was ready to proceed as counsel on the part of the de- fendant, and asking no delay whatever. Burch, after consulting privately a short time with Shekels, stated to the magistrate that he wished him to dismiss the complaint, as he would not proceed farther with it. Defendant's counsel stated to the magistrate that if the complaint was withdrawn, it must be without the request or consent of the defendant. Burch then asked the magistrate to let him have the complaint and the warrant, and he took them. The counsel for the defendant objected to his receiving them, and in- sisted they should remain as part of the records of the court, and that the court should endorse the proceed- ings which had been had under the process. Burch delivered them up, and the court rendered a judg-


merit of discontinuance by the request of the prosecu- tor, and filed it in his office. "

There may be those who will affect to believe the statement of the slave-trader — those, in whose minds his allegations will weigh heavier than mine. I am a poor colored man — one of a down-trodden and de- graded race, whose humble voice may not be heeded by the oppressor — but knowing the truth, and with a full sense of my accountability, I do solemnly declare before men, and before God, that any charge or as- sertion, that I conspired directly or indirectly with any person or persons to sell myself; that any other account of my visit to Washington, my capture and imprisonment in Williams' slave pen, than is contain- ed in these pages, is utterly and absolutely false. I never played on the violin in Washington. I never was in the Steamboat Hotel, and never saw Thorn or Shekels, to my knowledge, in my life, until last Jan- uary. The story of the trio of slave-traders is a fab- rication as absurd as it is base and unfounded. "Were it true, I should not have turned aside on my way back to liberty for the purpose of prosecuting Burch. I should have avoided rather than sought him. I should have known that such a step would have re- sulted in rendering me infamous. Under the circum- stances — longing as I did to behold my family, and elated with the prospect of returning home — it is an outrage upon probability to suppose I would have run the hazard, not only of exposure, but of a criminal


prosecution and conviction, by voluntarily placing myself in the position I did, if the statements of Burch and his confederates contain a particle of truth. I took pains to seek him out, to confront him in a court of law, charging him with the crime of kidnap- ping ; and the only motive that impelled me to this step, was a burning sense of the wrong he had inflict- ed upon me, and a desire to bring him to justice. He was accpiitted, in the manner, and by such means as have been described. A human tribunal has per- mitted him to escape ; but there is another and a higher tribunal, where false testimony will not pre- vail, and where I am willing, so far at least as these statements are concerned, to be judged at last.

We left "Washington on the 20th of January, and proceeding by the way of Philadelphia, New- York, and Albany, reached Sandy Hill in the night of the 21st. My heart overflowed with happiness as I look- ed around upon old familiar scenes, and found myself in the midst of friends of other days. The following morning I started, in company with several acquaint- ances, for Glens Falls, the residence of Anne and our children.

As I entered their comfortable cottage, Margaret was the first that met me. She did not recognize me. When I left her, she was but seven years old, a little prattling girl, playing with her toys. Now she was grown to womanhood — was married, with a bright- eyed boy standing by her side. Not forgetful of his


enslaved, unfortunate grand-father, she had named the child Solomon Northup Staunton. When told who I was, she was overcome with emotion, and unable to speak. Presently Elizabeth entered the room, and Anne came running from the hotel, having been in- formed of my arrival. They embraced me, and with tears flowing down their cheeks, hung upon my neck. But I draw a veil over a scene which can better be imagined than described.

When the violence of our emotions had subsided to a sacred joy — when the household gathered round the fire, that sent out its warm and crackling comfort through the room, we conversed of the thousand events that had occurred — the hopes and fears, the joys and sorrows, the trials and troubles we had each experienced during the long separation. Alonzo was absent in the western part of the State. The boy had written to his mother a short time previous, of the prospect of his obtaining sufficient money to pur- chase my freedom. From his earliest years, that had been the chief object of his thoughts and his ambi- tion. They knew I was in bondage. The letter writ- ten on board the brig, and Clem Bay himself, had given them that information. But where I was, until the arrival of Bass' letter, was a matter of conjecture. Elizabeth and Margaret once returned from school — ■ so Anne informed me — weeping bitterly. On inquir- ing the cause of the children's sorrow, it was found that, while studying geography, their attention had been attracted to the picture of slaves working in the



cotton-field, and an overseer following them with his whip. It reminded them of the sufferings their fa- ther might be, and, as it happened, actually was, en- during in the South. Numerous incidents, such as these, were related — incidents showing they still held me in constant remembrance, but not, perhaps, of sufficient interest to the reader, to be recounted.

My narrative is at an end. I have no comments to make upon the subject of Slavery. Those who read this book may form their own opinions of the " pe- culiar institution." "What it may be in other States, I do not profess to know ; what it is in the region of Tied River, is truly and faithfully delineated in these pages. This is no fiction, no exaggeration. If I have failed in anything, it has been in presenting to the reader too prominently the bright side of the picture. I doubt not hundreds have been as unfortunate as myself; that hundreds of free citizens have been kid- napped and sold into slavery, and are at this mo- ment wearing out their lives on plantations in Texas and Lonisiana.^But I forbear. Chastened and subdued in spirit by the sufferings I have borne, and thankful to that good Being through whose mer- cy I have been restored to happiness and liberty, I hope henceforward to lead an upright though lowly life, and rest at last in the church yard where my fa- ther sleeps.

N* 21




" Harper's creek and roarin' ribber, Thar, my dear, we'll live forebber ; Den we'll go to de Ingin nation, All I want in dis creation, Is pretty little wife and big plantation.

CHORES. Up dat oak and down dat ribber, Two overseers and one little nigger."

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