Our goal is to help you help students better understand and ENJOY classic literature! Specifically, the genre of Romanticism. We offer a suggested framework for teachers and students to better understand the genre and identify exemplary works and authors whose works embrace its precepts. We encourage teachers to offer constructive ideas to make this guide more useful for other teachers and students. Please email your suggestions, with "Realism" in the subject field to: email@example.com
Realism is the polar opposite of Romanticism. Realists depend on facts and reality, while Romantics embrace emotions, intuition, and individual freedoms of expression. In a "David and Goliath" scenario, Romantics root for David because he has a chance, while Realists know the data supports that Goliath will prevail. Realists account for the forces of nature, government, and war, which confront the common man. Unlike Romantics, Dark Romantics emphasize self-destructive forces, human fallibility and a "what can go wrong, will" philosophy, similar to Realists. Similar to Gothic Literature, Realists establish credibility with their readers by providing graphic detail (in the case of Gothic, this usually involves torment, morbidity, and the supernatural).
The genre of Realism in art, literature, and music exposes the raw, naked truths of life. They focus on facts and details to make the ordinary believable and interesting. Early adopters of Realism were Russian authors such as Alexsander Pushkin, who focused on human avarice, and later, Anton Chekhov, who employed cynicism and social commentary about the destructive forces of all-powerful institutions, usually with ironic twist endings. American science fiction writers who would come later, such as H.G. Wells, and dystopian English novelist George Orwell foretell a future where all-knowing technology and government strip the privacy and hopes of individuals. But the first wave of Realists came before them.
Tom Sawyer, and his semi-autobiography, Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain reveal his witty cynicism and commentary about race and social classes, particularly in the South. His flair for sarcasm covers a broad range of every day topics, as in About Barbers.
The Fat of the Land by Anzia Yezierska, a Jewish-American author relaying the immigrant experience in New York's tenements, speaks of the many challenges in forging a new identify and achieve "The American Dream."
Ambrose Bierce and Thomas Nelson Page are American authors whose experiences during wartime make them exemplars of Realism. Particularly Bierce expressed uncanny details about the complex ethical choices confronted by soliders during the Civil War. Visit our collection of Civil War Stories for other stories and poems that epitomize Realism.
The etymology of "Realism" is from the Latin word "realis." It means "the faithful representation of reality." The opposite of idealism (how we would like things to be), Realism features an objectivity free of emotion or interpretation.
American authors embraced Realism, particularly between 1860 - 1890, with a focus on the economic reality of middle-class life, the ordinary, the "here and now." Character was more important than action and plot, complex ethical choices were emphasized rather than morality. The increasing rates of democracy and literacy, the rise of industrialization and the Westward expansion, immigrants flooding into the country-- all provided a broad range of American experiences to write about. In addition, America was attempting to recover and unify following the destructive and devisive American Civil War, the promises of the Reconstruction era remained fraught with inequalities and lack of access based on race, education, and wealth, and the festering dichotomies between Northern and Southern cultures. Though the U.S. Constitution was amended (Reconstruction Amendments) to provide African-Americans the right to vote, equal access and parity with whites would remain illusive for another century. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865. Romantic, idealist literature fell out of favor, replaced by authors who could "tell it like it is" with Realism.
Explain the specific qualities of each quote as an exemplar of Realism:
"Don't tell me the moon is shining; show me the glint of light on broken glass."
"Any idiot can face a crisis; it's this day-to-day living that wears you out."
-- Anton Chekhov
"I am a poor woman, I earn my bread by taking in lodgers. I am a weak, defenceless woman . . . I have to put up with ill-usage from everyone and never hear a kind word..."
-- Anton Chekhov's A Defenseless Creature
"Uptown here, where each lives in his own house, nobody cares if the person next door is dying or going crazy from loneliness. It ain’t anything like we used to have it in Delancey Street, when we could walk into one another’s rooms without knocking, and borrow a pinch of salt or a pot to cook in.”
-- Anzia Yezierska's The Fat of the Land
"All you need in this life is ignorance and confidence; then success is sure."
"Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please."
-- Mark Twain
"They are hopelessly vulgar. Whether or no being hopelessly vulgar is being 'bad' is a question for the metaphysicians. They are bad enough to dislike, at any rate; and for this short life that is quite enough."
-- Henry James's Daisy Miller
"When Joe Dagget was outside he drew in the sweet evening air with a sigh, and felt much as an innocent and perfectly well-intentioned bear might after his exit from a china shop. Louisa, on her part, felt much as the kind-hearted, long-suffering owner of the china shop might have done after the exit of the bear."
-- Mary E. Wilkins Freeman's A New England Nun
"Will you sort of look over it, sir, if you think it's worth while? We was in a sort of hurry and we had to put it down just as we come to it; we didn't have time to pick our ammunition; and it ain't written the best in the world, nohow."
-- Thomas Nelson Page's The Burial of the Guns
"If he was not commonplace, it was through nothing remarkable in his mind, which was simply clear and practical, but through some combination of qualities of the heart that made men trust him, and women call him sweet--a word of theirs which conveys otherwise indefinable excellences."
-- William Dean Howells's The Rise of Silas Lapham
1. Identify the characteristics of Realism. How is it different from Romanticism in meaning and expression?
2. Provide an example of a story that celebrates the "ordinary" (Realism) with a story that celebrates the "hero" (Romanticism).
3. Discuss the common elements shared by the genres of Dark Romanticism, Gothic Literature, and Realism. What are some important differences?
4. What was happening in United States history between 1860-1890 that gave rise to the appeal of Realism by American authors?
6. Choose a story by Mark Twain and discuss his use of sarcasm and cynicism befitting his title as a Realist.
7. Read The Fat of the Land and discuss how the story's portrayal of the Jewish-American immigrant experience exemplifies Realism.
10. Consider the appeal of fiction which exhibits Realism versus fiction which exhibits Romanticism. Which do you tend to like better and why?
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